Article history: Received: 29-08-2016, Accepted: 09-03-2017, Published online: 26-04-2017
Corresponding author: Yiltawe Simwal Wungak
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Wungak YS, Ishola OO, Olugasa BO, Lazarus DD, Ehizibolo DO, Ularamu HG (2017) Spatial pattern of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in North Central Nigeria, Veterinary World, 10(4): 450-456.
Aim: This study aimed to determine the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating, the prevalence of FMDV serotypes, and the spatial distribution of FMDV among sedentary and pastoral cattle herds in the North-Central Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken, during which a total of 155 sera that tested positive for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) 3ABC non-structural protein antibodies were selected and screened for FMD structural protein serotypes, A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2 using a solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Epithelial tissue specimens were collected during outbreak investigations which were tested for FMD using an antigen capture ELISA for serotype A, O, SAT 1, and SAT 2.
Results: An overall serotype-specific prevalence of 79.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 72.4-85.18) was recorded for serotype O, 65.2% (95% CI: 57.41-72.3) for serotype A, 52.9% (95% CI: 45.03-60.67) for SAT-2, and 33.55% (95% CI: 26.45-41.26) for SAT-1. Evidence of exposure to multiple FMDV serotypes showed that 12.26% of the sera samples had antibodies against four serotypes circulating, 30.97% had antibodies against three serotypes circulating, 22.58% had antibodies against two serotypes, and 17% showed exposure to only one serotype. Clinical specimens (epithelial tissue) collected during outbreak investigations showed that serotype O has the highest proportion of 50% with serotype A - 25%; SAT 2 - 20.8%; and SAT 1 - 4.1%.
Conclusion: The study detected diffuse and co-circulation of serotypes A, O, SAT1, and SAT2 within the study area, and hence the need for the appropriately matched multivalent vaccine is strongly advocated for FMD control in Nigeria.
Keywords: antibodies, endemic, foot-and-mouth disease, multiple, Nigeria, serotypes, spatial.
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