Open Access
Research (Published online: 19-04-2017)
8. Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania
M. B. Miran, A. A. Kasuku and E. S. Swai
Veterinary World, 10(4): 411-417

M. B. Miran: Department of Livestock, Ngorongoro District Council, P. O. Box 1, Loliondo, Tanzania.
A. A. Kasuku: Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3015, Morogoro, Tanzania.
E. S. Swai: Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, P. O. Box 9152, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.411-417

Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]

Article history: Received: 25-10-2016, Accepted: 27-02-2017, Published online: 19-04-2017

Corresponding author: E. S. Swai


Citation: Miran MB, Kasuku AA, Swai ES (2017) Prevalence of echinococcosis and Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered small ruminants at the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania, Veterinary World, 10(4):411-417.

Aim: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis (due to the larval stage of Echinococcus spp.) and cysticercosis (due to the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena) pose a significant economic losses due to slaughter condemnation and risk to public health in developing countries such as Tanzania where sanitation is poor and people live in close proximity with each other and with animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of and to identify the predisposing factors for echinococcosis and cysticercosis in sheep and goats at three slaughter slabs located in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Ngorongoro, Tanzania.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional based survey was conducted, from January 2013 to April 2013, whereby a total of 180 animals comprising 90 goats and 90 sheep of both sexes were examined at postmortem for the evidence of larval stages of Echinococcus spp. (hydatid cyst) and T. hydatigena (Cysticercus tenuicollis) through visual inspection, incision and palpation of organs and viscera.

Results: The prevalence of echinococcosis was 22.2% and 16.6%, in goats and sheep, respectively, while the overall infection rates for cysticercosis were 61.1% in goats and 42.2% in sheep. The result of this study revealed that goats and sheep in Malambo slaughter slab had significantly higher prevalence of T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis) and hydatid cysts (p<0.05) compared to other slab points. T. hydatigena (C. tenuicollis) cysts were more frequently detected in the omentum than other visceral organs among the animals examined.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the observed high prevalence of the two metacestodes larval stages leads to high condemnation rates of edible offals and raises significant public health concerns. This underscores for the need to undertake more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the causal factors, economic impact, and public health importance of the disease in this livestock-wildlife interface setting.

Keywords: cysticercosis, echinococcosis, small ruminants, Tanzania, wildlife interface.


1. URT (United Republic of Tanzania). (2012) National Sample Census of Agriculture 2007/2008 Small Holder Agriculture. Livestock Sector - National Report. Vol. III. National Bureau of Statistics, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. p8-10.

2. Soulsby, E.J.L. (1986) Helminthes, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. Vol. 7. Bailliere Tindall, London. p370-400.

3. Murell, K.D. (2005) Epidemiology of taeniosis and cysticercosis. Guidelines for the Surveillance, Prevention and Control of Taeniosis/Cysticercosis WHO/FAO/OIE. OIE, Paris. p44.

4. Ahmadi, N.A. and Meshkehkar, M. (2011) An abattoir-based study on the prevalence and economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered herbivores in Ahwaz, South-Western Iran. J. Helminthol., 85(1): 33-39. [Crossref] [PubMed]

5. Gessese, A.T., Mulate, B. and Nazir, S. (2015) Major metacestodes in small ruminants slaughtered at Dessie municipal abattoir, Eastern Ethiopia: Prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and economic implications. Comp. Clin. Pathol., 24(3): 659-668. [Crossref]

6. Getaw, A., Beyene, D., Ayana, D., Megersa, B. and Abunna, F. (2010) Hydatidosis: Prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, Ethiopia. Acta Trop., 113: 221-225. [Crossref]

7. Dumitri, I.M., Dumitri, E. and Rugina, S. (2011) The role of epidemiologic data in management of hydatidosis in Constanta County, Romania. Ther. Pharmacol. Clin. Toxicol., 15(2): 132-138.

8. Oryan, A., Goorgipour, S., Moazeni, M. and Shirian, S. (2012) Abattoir prevalence, organ distribution, public health and economic importance of major metacestodes in sheep, goats and cattle in Fars, Southern Iran. Trop. Biomed., 29(3): 349-359. [PubMed]

9. Parija, S.C. (2004) Text Book of Medical Parasitology, Protozoology and Helminthology. India Publishers and Distributors, India, New Delhi. p2.

10. Torgerson, P.R., Williams, D.H. and Abo-Shehada, M.N. (2008) Modelling the prevalence of Echinococcus and Taenia species in small ruminants of different ages in Northern Jordan. Glob. Vet., 2(3): 92-145.

11. Helina, G., Tadesse, G., Tewodros, F. and Mersha, C. (2012) Small ruminants hydatidosis: Occurrence and economic importance in Addis Ababa abattoir. Glob. Vet., 8(2): 160-167.

12. Ernest, E., Nonga, H.E., Kassuku, A.A. and Kazwala, R.R. (2009) Studies on the epidemiology of echinococcosis/hydatidosis in Ngorongoro district, Arusha region, Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 41(7): 1179-1185. [Crossref] [PubMed]

13. Nonga, H.E. and Karimuribo, E.D. (2009) A retrospective survey of hydatidosis in livestock in Arusha, Tanzania, based on abattoir data during 2005-07. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 41(7): 1253-1257. [Crossref] [PubMed]

14. Miran, B.M., Nzalawahe, J., Kassuku, A.A. and Swai, E.S. (2015) Prevalence of coenurosis in sheep and goats at three slaughter slabs in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 47(8): 1591-1597. [Crossref] [PubMed]

15. Dalimi, A., Motamedi, G., Hosseini, M., Mohammadian, B., Malaki, H., Ghamari, Z. and Ghaffari-Far, F. (2002) Echinococcosis/hydatidosis in Western Iran. Vet. Parasitol., 105: 161-171. [Crossref]

16. Nyero, D., Zirintunda, G., Omadang, L. and Ekou, J. (2015) Prevalence of hydatid cysts in goats and sheep in slaughtered in Soroti Municipal Abattoir, Eastern Uganda. Afr. J. Parasitol. Res., 2(9): 148-151.

17. Lahmar, S., Kilani, M., Torgerson, P.R., and Gemmell, M.A., (1999). Echinococcus granulosus larvae in the livers of sheep in Tunisia: the effects of host age. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 93:75-81. [Crossref]

18. Pandey, V.S., Ohelli, H. and Moumen, A. (1988) Epidemiology of hydatidosis/echinococcosis in Quarzazte, the Pre-Saharan regions of Morocco. Ann. Rev. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 82(5): 461-470. [Crossref]

19. Bayu, Y., Asmelash, A., Zerom, K. and Ayalew, T. (2013) Prevalence and economic importance of liver parasites: Hydatid cyst, Fasciola species and Cysticercus tenuicollis in sheep and goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir enterprise in Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health., 5(1): 1-7.

20. Grosso, G., Antonio, B., Marventano, S. and Mistretta, A. (2012) Worldwide epidemiology of liver hydatidosis including the Mediterranean area. World J. Gastroenterol., 18(13): 1425-1437. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

21. Daryani, A., Alaei, R., Arab, R., Sharif, M., Dehgham, M.H. and Ziaei, H. (2007) The prevalence, intensity and viability of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in the Ardabil Province of North West Iran. J. Helminthol., 81(3): 13-17. [PubMed]

22. Menkir, M.S., Uggla, A. and Waller, P.J. (2008) Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in Eastern Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 40(6): 387-394. [Crossref] [PubMed]

23. Ibrahim, M.M. (2010) Study of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered animals in Al Baha region, Saudia Arabia: Interaction between some biotic and abiotic factors. Acta Trop., 113(1): 26-33. [Crossref] [PubMed]

24. Fromsa, A. and Jobre, Y. (2011) Infection prevalence of hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus, Batsch, 1786) in domestic animals in Ethiopia: A synthesis report of previous surveys. Ethiop. Vet. J., 15(2): 11-33. [Crossref]

25. Ernest, E., Kassuku, A. and Kazwala, R. (2004) Studies on the epidemiology of echinococcosis/hydatidosis in Ngorongoro district, Arusha region, Tanzania. Int. Arch Hydatid, 35: 43.

26. Swai, E.S., Miran, B.M., Kassuku, A.A. and Nzalawahe, J. (2016) Taeniasis in non-descript dogs in Ngorongoro, Tanzania: Prevalence and predisposing factors. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 83(1): a1013. [Crossref]

27. Radfar, M.H., Tajalli, S. and Jalalzadeh, M. (2005) Prevalence and morphological characterization of Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena cysticerci) from sheep and goats in Iran. Vet. Arh., 75(6): 469-476.

28. Nimbakar, R.K., Shinde, S.S., Kamtikar, V.N. and Muley, S.P. (2011) Study on Taenia hydatigena in the slaughtered sheep (Ovis bharal) and goats (Capra hircus) in Maharashtra, India. Glob. Vet., 6(4): 374-377.

29. Singh, B.B., Sharma, R., Gill, I.P.S. and Sharma, J.K. (2013) Prevalence and morphological characterisation of Cysticercus tenuicollis (Taenia hydatigena cysts) in sheep and goats in north India. J. Parasit. Dis., DOI: 10.1007/s12639-013-0284-7. [Crossref]

30. Abu-Elwafa, S.A., Al-Araby, M.A. and Abbas, I.E. (2009) Metacestode among sheep slaughtered at Mansoura Abattoir, Dakahlia Province, Egypt. Vet. Med. J. Giza, 11(1), 21-23.

31. Nwosu, C.O., Ogunrinade, F. and Fagbemi, F. (1996) Prevalence and seasonal changes in gastro intestinal helminths of Nigerian goats. J. Helminthol., 70: 329-330. [Crossref] [PubMed]

32. Solaymani, M.S., Mobedi, I., Rezalan, M., Masauod, J., Mohebali, M., Hooshyar, H., Ashrafi, K. and Rokini, M.B. (2003) Helminth parasites of the wild boar, Sus scrofa in Luristan Province. J. Helminthol., 77: 263-267. [Crossref] [PubMed]