Article history: Received: 27-03-2017, Accepted: 22-06-2017, Published online: 03-08-2017
Corresponding author: Saber Raeghi
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Valizadeh M, Haghpanah B, Badirzadeh A, Roointan E, Fallahi S, Raeghi S (2017) Immunization of sheep against Echinococcus granulosus with protoscolex tegumental surface antigens, Veterinary World, 10(8): 854-858.
Aim: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has potential economic effects to both animal products and human health. A vaccine to protect livestock against CE can be effective in reducing economic costs and increasing the livestock products. Protoscolex tegumental surface antigens (PSTSA) used to induce the production of specific antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep. The tegumental antigens were extracted from viable protoscolices by solubilization in sterile phosphate-buffered saline containing decanoyl-N-methylglucamine.
Materials and Methods: Ten lambs which were infected with CE (positive control), 10 negative control, and 10 test groups of sheep were included in the study. 300 μg emulsion of purified-PSTSA was injected intramuscularly in a two-step immunization on the first and 30 days. Sera were collected immediately before immunization and 6 times with 10-day intervals until 60 days post immunization. Thereafter, the sera were tested for antibodies by indirect hemagglutination test in microtiter plate.
Results: After two immunizations, all the infected animals in test group showed substantial increases in antibody titer. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the titer obtained in the test and negative control groups in both phases of immunization (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that the PSTSA is a promising immunogenic compound for immunization of sheep against CE.
Keywords: cystic echinococcosis, Echinococcus granulosus, immunization, Iran, Protoscolex tegumental surface antigens, sheep.
2. McManus, D.P. (2010) Echinococcosis with particular reference to Southeast Asia. Adv. Parasitol., 72: 267-303. [Crossref]
5. Jeyathilakan, N., Abdul-Basith, S., Lalitha, J., Daniel Joy, Chandran, N., Dhinakar Raj, G.and Richard Churchill, R. (2014) Evaluation of native 8 kDa antigen based three immunoassays for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in sheep. Small Rumin. Res., 116(2-3): 199-205. [Crossref]
6. Torgerson, P. (2003) Economic effects of echinococcosis. Acta Trop., 85(2): 113-118. [Crossref]
8. Bulashev, A.K., Suranshiev, Z.A., Akibekov, O.S., Akanova, Z.Z. and Abulgazimova, G.A. (2017) Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in cattle. Folia Parasitol. (Praha)., 64: pii: 2017.005.
9. Wang, H., Li, Z., Gao, F., Zhao, J., Zhu, M., He, X., Niu, N. and Zhao, W. (2016) Immunoprotection of recombinant Eg. P29 against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep. Vet. Res. Commun., 40(2): 73-79. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
11. Heath, D., Jensen, O. and Lightowlers, M. (2003) Progress in control of hydatidosis using vaccination-a review of formulation and delivery of the vaccine and recommendations for practical use in control programmes. Acta Trop., 85(2): 133-143. [Crossref]
12. Larrieu, E., Mujica, G., Gauci, C.G., Vizcaychipi, K., Seleiman, M., Herrero, E., Labanchi, J.L., Araya, D. and Grizmado, C. (2015) Pilot field trial of the EG95 vaccine against ovine cystic echinococcosis in Rio Negro, Argentina: Second study of impact. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 9(10): e0004134. [Crossref]
13. Lightowlers, M. and Heath, D. (2004) Immunity and vaccine control of Echinococcus granulosus infection in animal intermediate hosts. Parassitologia, 46(1-2): 27-31. [PubMed]
15. Dang, Z., Yagi, K., Oku, Y., Kouguchi, H., Kajino, K., Matsumoto, J., Nakao, R., Wakaguri, H., Toyoda, A., Yin, H. and Sugimoto, C. (2012) A pilot study on developing mucosal vaccine against alveolar echinococcosis (AE) using recombinant tetraspanin 3: Vaccine efficacy and immunology. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 6(3): e1570. [Crossref]
17. Gurri, J. (1963) Vitalidad y evolutividad de los escolices hidaticos in vivo e in vitro. Fac. Med. Montevideo, 48: 372-381.
18. Carol, H., Nieto, A., Villacres, M. and Morein, B. (1997) Intranasal immunization of mice with Echinococcus granulosus surface antigens iscoms evokes a strong immune response, biased towards glucidic epitopes. Parasite Immunol., 19(5): 197-205. [Crossref]
19. Patton, S., Johnson, S.S. and Puckett, K. (1990) Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in nine populations of dairy goats: Compared titers using modified direct agglutination and indirect hemagglutination. J. Parasitol., 76: 74-77. [Crossref]
21. Barnes, T.S., Hinds, L.A., Jenkins, D.J., Coleman, G.T., Colebrook, A.L., Kyngdon, C.T., Gauci, C.G. and Lightowlers, M.W. (2009) Efficacy of the EG95 hydatid vaccine in a macropodid host, the tammar wallaby. Parasitology, 136(4): 461-468. [Crossref] [PubMed]
22. Hui, W., Jiang, S., Tang, J., Hou, H., Chen, S., Jia, B. and Ban, Q. (2015) An immediate innate immune response occurred in the early stage of E. granulosus eggs infection in sheep: Evidence from microarray analysis. PLoS One., 10(8): e0135096. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
23. Lamberti, R., Cavagion, L., Gatti, A., Calvo, C., Gino, L., Puches, V.V., Alvarez, A.R., Alvarez, E., Cachau, M.G., Morete, M. and Larrieu, E. (2014) Humoral response and evolution of Echinococcus infection in experimentally infected sheep. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet., 23(2): 237-240. [Crossref]
24. Ahmadnia, S., Moazeni, M., Mohammadi-Samani, S. and Alavi, A.M. (2014) Hydatid cyst formation in male Balb/c mice following the intraperitoneal injection of live protoscoleces and activated oncospheres: A comparative study. J. Parasite Dis., 38(1): 77-80. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
25. Mihmanli, M., Idiz, U.O., Kaya, C., Demir, U., Bostanci, O., Omeroglu, S. and Bozkurt, E. (2016) Current status of diagnosis and treatment of hepatic echinococcosis. World J. Hepatol., 8(28): 1169-1181. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
26. Esmaelizad, M., Ahmadian, G., Aghaiypour, K., Shamsara, M., Paykari, H. and Tebianian, M. (2013) Induction of protective T-helper 1 immune responses against Echinococcus granulosus in mice by a multi-T-cell epitope antigen based on five proteins. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 108(4): 408-413. [Crossref] [PubMed]27. Sarvi, S., Dalimi, A. and Ghafarifar, F. (2012) Molecular cloning and expression of EG95 gene of Iranian isolates of Echinococcus granulosus. Iran. J. Parasitol., 7(2): 1-7. [PubMed] [PMC]