Article history: Received: 06-07-2017, Accepted: 30-10-2017, Published online: 01-12-2017
Corresponding author: Vaibhav Purwar
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Purwar V, Oberoi PS, Dang AK (2017) Effect of feed supplement and additives on stress mitigation in Karan Fries heifers. Veterinary World, 10(12): 1407-1412.
Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protected fat plus yeast, niacin, zinc, and chromium dietary supplementation on the reduction of heat stress in Karan Fries (KF) heifers during hot humid months.
Materials and Methods: The basal ration for both the control and treatment groups was the same, containing maize as green fodder and concentrate mixture. However, the treatment group was supplemented with protected fat (2.5% of dry matter intake [DMI]), yeast (10 g/animal/day), niacin (6 g/animal/day), zinc (40 mg/kg DMI), and chromium (1.5 mg/kg DMI).
Results: The overall mean value of afternoon rectal temperature for control and treatment group was 103.17±0.09 and 102.72±0.10°F, respectively, and was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the treatment group. The overall mean value of afternoon respiration rate for control and treatment group was 76.35±0.56 and 73.13±0.58 breaths/min, respectively, and was also significantly (p<0.01) lower in the treatment group. The overall mean value of afternoon pulse rate for control and treatment group was 97.09±0.63 and 94.67±0.67 beats/minute, respectively, and was also significantly (p<0.01) lower in the treatment group. Finally, the mean cortisol concentration for control and treatment group was 3.94±0.05 ng/ml and 3.70±0.06 ng/ml, respectively, and was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the treatment group.
Conclusion: The present study shows that supplementation with the above feed additives could serve as a heat stress abatement strategy in growing KF heifers during extreme conditions in summer months.
Keywords: feed supplement, heat stress, hot humid, Karan Fries.
1. Pachauri, R.K., Allen, M.R., Barros, V.R., Broome, J., Cramer, W., Christ, R. and Dubash, N.K. (2014) Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC. p151.
2. Kibler, H.H. and Brody, S. (1951) Influence of increasing temperature, 40 to 105°F, on heat production and cardio respiratory activities in Brown Swiss and Brahman cow and heifers. Res. Bull., 473: 1-24.
3. Mujahid, A., Akiba, Y. and Toyomizu, M. (2007) Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress and decreases adaptation in young white leghorn cockerels by down regulation of avian uncoupling protein. Poult. Sci., 86(2): 364-371. [Crossref]
4. Sheikh, A.A., Aggarwal, A., Aarif, O. and Upadhyay, R.C. (2015) In vitro effect of zinc treatment on the antioxidant status of heat stressed peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient sahiwal and karan fries cows-a comparative study. J. Anim. Res., 5(2): 243. [Crossref]
5. Kegley, E.B., Spears, J.W. and Brown, T.T. (1996) Immune response and disease resistance of calves fed chromium nicotinic acid complex or chromium chloride1. J. Dairy Sci., 79(7): 1278-1283. [Crossref]
6. Mowat, D.N. (1994) Organic Chromium, a New Nutrient for Stressed Animals. In: Alltech Intern. Biotech. Medal of Excellence Lecture. Proc. Gth Ann. Symp. Ailtech Inc. Nicholasville, KY. p275.
7. Liu, F., Cottrell, J.J., Wijesiriwardana, U., Kelly, F.W., Chauhan, S.S., Pustovit, R.V. and Dunshea, F.R. (2017) Effects of chromium supplementation on physiology, feed intake, and insulin related metabolism in growing pigs subjected to heat stress. Transl. Anim. Sci., 1(1): 116-125.
8. Pechova, A., Pavlata, L. and Illek, J. (2002) Metabolic effects of chromium administration to dairy cows in the period of stress. Acta. Vet. Brno., 71: 9-18. [Crossref]
9. Melo, R.P., Castro, L.P., Cardoso, F.F., Barbosa, E.F., Melo, L.Q., Silva, R.B. and Pereira, M.N. (2016) 1328 supplementation of palm oil to lactating dairy cows fed a high fat diet during summer. J. Anim. Sci., 94(Suppl 5): 640-640. [Crossref]
10. Chan, S.C., Huber, J.T., Chen, K.H., Simas, J.M. and Wu, Z. (1997) Effects of ruminally inert fat and evaporative cooling on dairy cows in hot environmental temperatures. J. Dairy Sci., 80(6): 1172-1178. [Crossref]
11. Maciejewski-Lenoir, D., Richman, J.G., Hakak, Y., Gaidarov, I., Behan, D.P. and Connolly, D.T. (2006) Langerhans cells release prostaglandin D 2 in response to nicotinic acid. J. Invest. Dermatol., 126(12): 2637-2646. [Crossref] [PubMed]
13. Ducray, H.A.G., Globa, L., Pustovyy, O., Reeves, S., Robinson, L., Vodyanoy, V. and Sorokulova, I. (2016) Mitigation of heat stress-related complications by a yeast fermentate product. J. Therm. Biol., 60: 26-32. [Crossref] [PubMed]
14. Das, K.S., Singh, J., Singh, G., Upadhyay, R., Malik, R. and Oberoi, P. (2014) Heat stress alleviation in lactating buffaloes: Effect on physiological response, metabolic hormone, milk production and composition. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 84(3): 275-280.
15. Suraj (2015) Effect of Bypass Fat Feeding on Physiological Functions During Heat Stress in Crossbred Heifers. M.V.Sc. Thesis, National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal, India.
16. ICAR. (2013) Nutrient Requirements of Cattle and Buffalo. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
17. Kumar, M., Kaur, H., Tyagi, A.K., Kewalramani, N.J., Mani, V., Deka, R.S. and Dang, A.K. (2013) Effect of feeding inorganic chromium on growth performance, endocrine variables, and energy metabolites in winter-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 155(3): 352-360. [Crossref] [PubMed]
18. National Research Council. (1971) A Guide to Environmental Research on Animals. The National Academy Science, Washington, DC.
19. Reece, W.O., Erickson, H.H., Goff, J.P. and Uemura, E.E., editors. (2015) Dukes' Physiology of Domestic Animals. John Wiley & Sons Incorporated, Ames.
20. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W. and Constable, P.D., editors. (2006) Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goats. Elsevier Health Sciences. Philadelphia, PA.
21. Du Preez, J.H. (2000) Parameters for the determination and evaluation of heat stress in dairy cattle in South Africa. J. Vet. Res., 67: 263-271.
22. Zimbelman, R.B., Collier, R.J. and Bilby, T.R. (2013) Effects of utilizing rumen protected niacin on core body temperature as well as milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows during heat stress. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 180(1): 26-33. [Crossref]
23. Zhu, W., Zhang, B.X., Yao, K.Y., Yoon, I., Chung, Y.H., Wang, J.K. and Liu, J.X. (2016), Effects of supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on lactation performance in dairy cows under heat stress. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 29(6): 801. [Crossref]
24. Broadway, P.R., Carroll, J.A., Burdick Sanchez, N.C., Roberts, S.L., Sharon, K.P., Richeson, J.T. and Corley, J.R. (2016) 069 Yeast probiotic supplementation mitigates some of the negative effects of heat stress in feedlot heifers. J. Anim. Sci., 94(Suppl 1): 34-34. [Crossref]
25. Gyanendra, S., Hooda, O.K., Mahapatra, R.K., Meur, S.K. and Varshney, V.P. (2009) Ameliorative effect of zinc and manganese supplementation in buffalo calves during hot climatic conditions. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 79(11): 1153-1155.
26. Singh, S.P., Hooda, O.K. and Kumar, P. (2011) Effect of yeast supplementation on feed intake and thermal stress mitigation in buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. (India), 81(9): 961-964.
27. Wrinkle, S.R., Robinson, P.H. and Garrett, J.E. (2012) Niacin delivery to the intestinal absorptive site impacts heat stress and productivity responses of high producing dairy cows during hot conditions. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 175(1): 33-47. [Crossref]
28. Rejeb, M., Sadraoui, R., Najar, T. and M'rad, M.B. (2016) A complex interrelationship between rectal temperature and dairy cows' performance under heat stress conditions. Open J. Anim. Sci., 6(1): 24. [Crossref]
29. Chang, X., Mowat, D.N. and Mallard, B.A. (1995) Supplemental chromium and niacin for stressed feeder calves. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 75(3): 351-358. [Crossref]
30. Kumar, M., Kaur, H., Deka, R.S., Mani, V., Tyagi, A.K. and Chandra, G. (2015) Dietary inorganic chromium in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis): Effects on biomarkers of heat stress, immune status, and endocrine variables. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 167(1): 18-27. [Crossref] [PubMed]31. Patel, B. (2015) Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Peri-Parturient Karan Fries Cows During Hot Humid Condition. M.V.Sc Thesis, National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal, India.