Article history: Received: 20-07-2017, Accepted: 02-11-2017, Published online: 14-12-2017
Corresponding author: Niranjana Sahoo
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Sahoo N, Behera BK, Khuntia HK, Dash M (2017) Prevalence of carrier status theileriosis in lactating cows, Veterinary World, 10(12): 1471-1474.
Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the carrier status of theileriosis among apparently healthy cross-bred jersey cattle population of Odisha using conventional blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Materials and Methods: A total of 34 apparently healthy cross-bred Jersey lactating cows were considered in this study. Blood samples were subjected to microscopic examination after staining with Giemsa stain and PCR based molecular diagnosis using two sets of primer, i.e., N516/N517 and TorF1/TorF2 specific for Theileria annulata and Theileria orientalis, respectively.
Results: Examination of blood samples revealed presence of theileria parasites to a magnitude of 20.59% for T. annulata, 8.82% for T. orientalis, and 2.94% for both.
Conclusion: Molecular diagnosis was found to be much more sensitive than conventional method for diagnosis of theileriosis. T. annulata was found to be the predominant species affecting the exotic cattle. T. orientalis was detected in apparently healthy cows.
Keywords: bovine theileriosis, carrier state, polymerase chain reaction, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis.
1. Inci, A., Ica, A., Yildirim, A., Vatansever, Z., Cakmak, A., Albasan, H., Cam, Y., Atasever, A., Sariozkan, S. and Duzlu, O. (2009) Economic impact of tropical theileriosis in the Cappadocia region of Turkey. Turkiye Parazitol. Derg., 33: 273-279.
2. Kohli, S., Atheya, UK. and Thapliyal, A. (2014) Prevalence of theileriosis in cross-bred cattle: Its detection through blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Vet. World, 7: 168-171. [Crossref]
3. NDDB. (2015) Animal Health Updates, Q. Newsl., 3(4): 1-4.
4. Panda, S.K., Sahu, B., Ranjan, R., Acharya, A.P. and Rath, S.K. (2012) Prevalence and clinicopathological study of theileriosis in bovine in coastal areas of Orissa. Indian J. Vet. Pathol., 35(2): 17-20.
5. Acharya, A.P., Panda, SK. and Prusty, BK. (2015) Molecular Diagnosis of Bovine Tropical Theileriosis in Cattle in Odisha. Presented at IAVP Conference, Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh.
6. Aparna, M., Ravindran, R., Vimalkumar, MB., Laxmanan, B., Rameshkumar, P., Ajithkumar, KG., Promod, K., Ajithkumar, S., Ravishankar, C., Devada, K., Subramanian, H., George, J. and Ghosh, S. (2011) Molecular characterization of Theileria orientalis causing fatal infection in crossbred adult bovines of South India. Parasitol. Int., 60(4): 524-529. [Crossref] [PubMed]
7. Anupama, R., Srinivsasan, SR. and Parthiban, M. (2015). Molecular studies on theileriosis and identification of Theileria orientalis in India using PCR. Indian Vet. J., 92(2): 9-11.
8. Vinodkumar, K., Shyma, V., Justin, DK., Ashok, S., Anu, JP., Mini, K., Muhammedkutty, V., Sasidharan, S. and Chullipparambil, S. (2016) Fatal Theileria orientalis N2 genotype infection among Asian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in a commercial dairy farm in Kerala, India. Camb. Univ. Press Parasitol., 143(1): 69-74. [Crossref]
9. Kakati, P., Sarmah, P.C., Ray, D., Bhattacharjee, K., Sharma, R.K., Barkalita, L.M., Sarma, D.K., Baishya, B.C., Borah, P. and Stanley, B. (2015) Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Assam, India. Vet. World, 8(9): 1099-1104. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
10. Kakati, P., Sarmah, P.C., Bhattacharjee, K., Bhuyan, D. and Baishya, B.C. (2015) Molecular detection and associated pathogenesis in a fatal case of Theileria orientalis infection in India: Probable circulation of a virulent strain and stress associated factors. Int. J. Rec. Sci. Res., 6: 4235-4239.
11. Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982) Heminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th ed. UK Blackwell Scientific Publications, London.
12. Urrani, A.Z. (2008) Identification of Ticks and Detection of Blood Protozoa in Friesian Cattle by Polymerase Chain Reaction Test and Estimation of Blood Parameters in District Kasur, Pakistan. Springer Science and Business Media, Bouvet Island (B.V). p441-447.
13. Parthiban, M., Saranya, R., Magesh, M. and Raman, M. (2010) Detection of Theileria parasite in cattle of Tamilnadu using nested PCR. Tamilnadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 6: 162-165.
14. Anonymous. (2014) OIE Terrestrial Manual. Ch. 2.4.16.
15. Dolan, T.T. (1986) Chemotherapy of east coast fever: The long term weight changes, carrier state and disease manifestations of parvaquone treated cattle. J. Comp. Pathol., 96: 137. [Crossref]
16. Roy, K.C., Ray, D., Bansal, G.C. and Singh, R.K. (2000) Detection of Theileria annulata carrier cattle by PCR. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 28: 283-284.
18. Ganguly, A., Bhanot, V., Bisla, RS., Ganguly, I., Singh, H. and Chaudhri, S.S. (2015) Haematobiochemical alterations and direct blood polymerase chain reaction detection of Theileria annulata in naturally infected crossbred cows. Vet. World, 8(1): 24-28. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
19. Hammer, J.F., Jenkins, C., Bogema, D. and Emery, D. (2016) Mechanical transfer of Theileria orientalis: Possible roles of biting arthropods, colostrum and husbandry practices in disease transmission. Parasit. Vectors, 9: 34. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
20. Khatoon, S., Kolte, SW., Kurkure, NV., Chopde, NA. and Jahan, A. (2015) Detection of tropical bovine theileriosis by polymerase chain reaction in cattle. J. Parasit. Dis., 39(1): 53-56. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
21. d'Oliveira, C., Van-der Weide, M., Habela, A., Jacquiet, P. and Jongejan, F. (1995) Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR. J Clin Microbiol 33(10): 2665-2669. [PubMed] [PMC]22. Kamau, J., de Vos, A. J., Playford, M., Salim, B., Kinyanjui, P. and Sugimoto, C. (2011) Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks. Parasites & Vectors., 4: 22. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]