Open Access
Research (Published online: 03-07-2017)
3. Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro
Ummu Balqis, Muhammad Hambal, Rinidar, Farida Athaillah, Ismail, Azhar, Henni Vanda and Darmawi
Veterinary World, 10(7): 732-737

Ummu Balqis: Laboratory of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.
Muhammad Hambal: Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.
Rinidar: Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.
Farida Athaillah: Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.
Ismail: Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.
Azhar: Laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.
Henni Vanda: Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.
Darmawi: Laboratory of Research, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia; Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Aceh, Indonesia.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.732-737

Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]

Article history: Received: 14-12-2016, Accepted: 17-05-2017, Published online: 03-07-2017

Corresponding author: Darmawi


Citation: Balqis U, Hambal M, Rinidar, Athaillah F, Ismail, Azhar, Vanda H, Darmawi (2017) Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro, Veterinary World, 10(7): 732-737.

Aim: The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii.

Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl3, Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii, and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope.

Results: We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.

Conclusion: We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.

Keywords: anthelmintics, Ascaridia galli, cuticle, Veitchia merrillii.


1. Hassanain, M.A., Rahman, E.H.A. and Khalil, F.A.M. (2009) New scanning electron microscopy look of Ascaridia galli (Schrank 1788) adult worm and its biological control. Res. J. Parasitol., 4: 1-11. [Crossref]

2. Begum, S., Mostofa, M., Alam, A.K.M., Tanjim, M., Ali, A.A.M., Islam, M.N. and Das, S. (2010) Prevalence of ascariasis and comparitave efficacy of pinapple leaves extract with patent drug piperazine against ascariasis of poultry at five villages under mymensingh district. Int. J. Biol. Res., 1(5): 41-44.

3. Saha, B.K., Abdullah-Al-Hasan, M.D., Rahman, M.A., Hassan, M.D.M. and Begum, N. (2015) Comparative eefficacy of neem leaves extract and levamisole against ascariasis in chicken. Int. J. Nat. Soc. Sci., 2: 43-48.

4. Kaufmann, F., Das, G., Sohnrey, B. and Gauly, M. (2011) Helminth infections in laying hens kept in organic free range systems in Germany. Livest. Sci., 141: 182-187. [Crossref]

5. Abdelqader, A., Gauly, M., Wollny, C.B. and Abo-Shehdada, M.N. (2008) Prevalence and burden of gastro-intestinal helminths among local chickens in northern Jordan. Prev. Vet. Med., 85: 17-22. [Crossref] [PubMed]

6. Ahmad, J., Tanveer, S. and Zargar, B.A. (2013) In vitro anthelmintic activity of Mentha longifolia (L.) leaves against Ascaridia galli. Glob. Vet., 11(1): 112-117.

7. Salam, S.T. (2015) Research article ascariasis in backyard chicken-prevalence, pathology and control. Int. J. Recent Sci. Res., 6(4): 3361-3365.

8. Alrubaie, A.L. (2015) Effect of alchoholic extract of Curcuma longa on Ascaridia infestation affecting chickens. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 53: 452-456. [PubMed]

9. Darmawi, D., Balqis, U., Hambal, M., Tiuria, R., Priosoeryanto, B.P. and Handharyani, E. (2012) The ability of immunoglobulin yolk recognized the antigen in the tissue of Ascaridia galli. Media Peternak, 35(3): 190-195. [Crossref]

10. Darmawi, D., Balqis, U., Hambal, M., Tiuria, R., Frengki. and Priosoeryanto, B.P. (2013) Mucosal mast cell response in jejunum of Ascaridia galli-infected laying hens. Media Peternak, 36(2): 113-119. [Crossref]

11. Das, G., Kaufmann, F., Abel, H. and Gauly, M. (2010) Effect of extra dietary lysine in Ascaridia galli-infected grower layers. Vet. Parasitol., 170: 238-243. [Crossref] [PubMed]

12. Vercruysse, J., Albonico, M., Behnke, J.M., Kotze, A.C., Prichard, R.K., McCarthy, J.S., Montresor, A. and Levecke, B. (2011) Is anthelmintic resistance a concern for the control of human soil-transmitted helminths? Int. J. Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist., 1(1): 14-27. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

13. Garcia, C.M.B., Sprenger, L.K., Ortiz, E.B. and Molento, M.B. (2016) First report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in Colombia. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 88: 1-5.

14. Jabbar, A., Iqbal, Z., Kerboeuf, D., Muhammad, G., Khan, F.M.N. and Afaq, M. (2006) Anthelmintic resistance: The state of play revisited. Life Sci., 79: 2413-2431. [Crossref] [PubMed]

15. Saeed, M., Iqbal, Z. and Jabbar, A. (2007) Oxfendazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beetal goats at livestock farms of Punjab (Pakistan). Acta Vet., 76: 79-85. [Crossref]

16. Condi, G.K., Soutello, R.G.V. and Amarante, A.F.T. (2009) Moxidectin-resistant nematodes in cattle in Brazil. Vet. Parasitol., 161(3-4): 213-217. [Crossref] [PubMed]

17. Soutello, R.G.V., Seno, M.C.Z. and Amarante, A.F.T. (2007) Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in northwestern Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Vet. Parasitol., 148(3-4): 360-364. [Crossref] [PubMed]

18. Demeler, J., van Zeveren, A.M.J., Kleinschmidt, N., Vercruysse, J., Hoglund, J., Koopmann, R., Cabaret, J., Claerebout, E., Areskog, M. and von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G. (2009) Monitoring the efficacy of ivermectin and albendazole against gastro intestinal nematodes of cattle in Northern Europe. Vet. Parasitol., 160(1-2): 109-115. [Crossref] [PubMed]

19. El-Sherbini, G.T. and Osman, S.M. (2013) Anthelmintic activity of unripe Mangifera indica L. (mango) against Strongyloides stercoralis. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci., 2(5): 401-409.

20. Hussain, A., Khan, M.N., Iqbal, Z., Sajid, M.S. and Khan, M.K. (2011) Anthelmintic activity of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Musa paradisiaca L. against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Vet. Parasitol., 179: 92-99. [Crossref] [PubMed]

21. CamurCa-Vasconcelos, A.L.F., Bevilaqua, C.M.L., Morais, S.M., Maciel, M.V., Costa, C.T.C., Macedo, I.T.F., Oliveira, L.M.B., Braga, R.R., Silva, R.A., Vieira, L.S. and Navarro, A.M.C. (2008) Anthelmintic activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Vet. Parasitol., 154: 167-170. [Crossref] [PubMed]

22. Islam, K.R., Farjana, T., Begum, N. and Mondal, M.M.H. (2008) In vitro efficacy of some indigenous plants on the inhibition of development of eggs of Ascaridia galli (Digenia: Nematoda). Bangladesh J. Vet. Med., 6(2): 159-167.

23. Khokon, J.U., Sharifuzzaman, Sarker, E.H., Rahman, M.A., Kisku, J.J. and Mustofa, M. (2014) Efficacy of neem leaf extract against ascariasis in indigenous chicken. Int. J. Nat. Soc. Sci., 1: 25-30.

24. Ali, N., Shah, S.W.A., Shah, I., Ahmed, G., Ghias, M. and Khan, I. (2011) Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium stocksianum boiss. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11(106): 1-7. [Crossref]

25. Abdelqader, A., Qaralla, B., Al-Ramamneh, D. and Das, G. (2012) Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli. Vet. Parasitol., 188(2): 78-84. [Crossref] [PubMed]

26. Rodriguez-Leyes, E.A., Vicente-Murillo, R., Gonzalez-Canavaciolo, V.L., Sierra-Perez, R.C., Marrero-Delange, D. and Leiva-Sanchez, A.T. (2013) Contenido de acidos grasos en la fraccion lipidica de frutos de tres Arecaceae cultivadas en Cuba. Rev. CENIC Cienc. Qui Micas, 44: 23-28.

27. Balqis, U., Darmawi, Maryam, Muslina, Hamzah, A., Daud, R., Hambal, M., Rinidar, Harris, A., Muttaqien, Azhar, and Eliawardani. (2016) Motility of Ascaridia galli adult worms in vitro in ethanolic extracts of nuts Veitchia merrillii. J. Agric., 16(1): 9-15.

28. Hamzah, A., Hambal, M., Balqis, U., Darmawi, Maryam, Rasmaidar, Athaillah, F., Muttaqien, Azhar, Ismail, Rastina, and Eliawardani. (2016) In vitro anthelmintic activity of Veitchia merrillii nuts against Ascaridia galli. Tradit. Med. J., 21(2): 1-6.

29. Sarojini, N., Manjari, S.A. and Kanti, C.C. (2011) Phytochemical screening and anthelmintcs activity study of Saraca indica leaves extracts. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2(5): 194-197.

30. Anthikat, R.R.N., Michael, A., Kinsalin, V.A. and Ignacimuthu, S. (2014) Antifungal activity of Areca catechu L. Int. J. Pharm. Clin. Sci., 4(1): 1-3.

31. Suleiman, M.M., Mamman, M., Sidiama, A., Ighoja, E.J., Tauheed, M. and Talba, A.M. (2014) Evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Nigerian ethnoveterinary plants; Cassia occidentalis and Guiera senegalensis. Vet. World, 7(7): 536-541. [Crossref]

32. Lalchhandama, K. (2010) On the structure of Ascaridia galli, the roundworm of domestic fowl. Sci. Vis., 10(1): 20-30.

33. Jeyathilakan, N., Murali, K., Anandaraj, A., Latha, B.R. and Basith, S.A. (2010) Anthelmintic activity of essential oils of Cymbopogan nardus and Azadirachta indica on Fasciola gigantica. Tamil Nadu. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 6(5): 204-209.

34. Jiraungkoorskul, W., Sahaphong, S., Tansatit, T., Kanwanrangsan, N. and Pipatshukiat, S. (2005) Eurytrema pancreaticum: The in vitro effect of praziquantel and triclabendazole on the adult fluke. Exp. Parasitol., 111: 172-177. [Crossref]

35. Li, E., Zhou, P., Petrin, Z. and Singer, S.M. (2004) Mast cell-dependent control of Giardia lamblia infections in mice. Infect. Immun., 72(11): 6642-6649. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

36. Konigova, A., Hrckova, G., Velebny, S., Corba, J. and Varady, M. (2008) Experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus strains resistant and susceptible to benzimidazoles and the effect on mast cells distribution in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Parasitol. Res., 102: 587-595. [Crossref]

37. Ndjonka, D., Agyare, C., Luersen, K., Djafsia, B., Achukwi, D., Nukenine, E.N., Hensel, A. and Liebau, E. (2011) In vitro activity of Cameroonian and Ghanaian medicinal plants on parasitic (Onchocerca ochengi) and free-living (Caenorhabditis elegans) nematodes. J. Helminthol., 85: 304-312. [Crossref]

38. Roy, B., Dasgupta, S., Manivel, V., Parameswaran, P.S. and Giri, B.R. (2012) Surface topographical and ultrastructural alterations of Raillietina echinobothrida and Ascaridia galli induced by a compound isolated from Acacia oxyphylla. Vet. Parasitol., 185: 322-326. [Crossref] [PubMed]

39. Oliveira-Menezes, A., Lins, R., Noroes, J., Dreyer, G. and Lanfredi, R.M. (2007) Comparative analysis of a chemotherapy effecton the cuticular surface of Wuchereria bancrofti adult worms in vivo. Parasitol. Res., 101: 1311-1317. [Crossref] [PubMed]

40. Alvarez, L.I., Mottier, M.L. and Lanusse, C.E. (2007) Drug transfer into target helminths parasites. Trends Parasitol., 23: 97-104. [Crossref] [PubMed]

41. Lalchhandama, K., Roy, B. and Dutta, B.K. (2009) Anthelmintic activity of Acacia oxyphylla stem bark against Ascaridia galli. Pharm. Biol., 47(7): 578-583. [Crossref]

42. Robinson, M.W., McFerran, N., Trudgent, A., Hoey, L. and Fairweather, I. (2004) A possible model of benzimidazole binding to β-tubulin disclosed by invoking an inter-domain movement. J. Mol. Graph. Model., 23: 275-284. [Crossref] [PubMed]

43. Dasgupta, S., Roy, B. and Tandon, V. (2010) Ultrastructural alterations of the tegument of Raillietina echinobothrida treated with the stem bark of Acacia oxyphylla (Leguminosae). J. Ethnopharmacol., 127: 568-571. [Crossref] [PubMed]

44. Giri, B.R., Roy, B. and Babu, S.P.S. (2013) Evidence of apoptosis in Raillietina echinobothrida induced by methanolic extracts of three traditional medicinal plants of Northeast India. Exp. Parasitol., 134: 466-473. [Crossref] [PubMed]

45. Lorent, J.H., Quetin-Leclercq, J. and Mingeot-Leclercq, M.P. (2014) The amphiphilic nature of saponins and their effects on artificial and biological membranes and potential consequences for red blood and cancer cells. Org. Biomol. Chem., 12: 8803-8822. [Crossref]

46. Nyambuya, T., Mautsa, R. and Mukanganyama, S. (2017) Alkaloid extracts from Combretum zeyheri inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis. BMC Compl. Altern. Med., 17(124): 1-11. [Crossref]