Article history: Received: 10-01-2017, Accepted: 24-05-2017, Published online: 08-07-2017
Corresponding author: Omnia M. Kandil
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Kandil OM, Abdelrahman KA, Shalaby HA, Hendawy SHM, Abu El Ezz NMT, Nassar SA, Miller JE (2017) Evaluation of crude larval protein and recombinant somatic protein 26/23 (rHcp26/23) immunization against Haemonchus contortus in sheep, Veterinary World, 10(7): 758-763.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential possibility of crude larval and recombinant (rHcp26/23) antigens of Haemonchus contortus for immunization to control sheep hemonchosis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 21 lambs were divided into five groups. Lambs were immunized with larval and recombinant (rHcp26/23) proteins at day 0 and day 14 and after that challenged with 5000 infective larvae of H. contortus on day 42. An unvaccinated positive control group was challenged with L3 in the meantime. An unvaccinated negative control group was not challenged.
Results: Fecal egg count reduction taking after challenge for rHcp26/23 and larval antigens was 92.2% and 38.2%, respectively, compared with the positive control group. Vaccine incited protection in rHcp26/23 and larval immunization was reflected in significant (p<0.05) decreases in worm burden; 59.9% and 40.1%, respectively.
Conclusion: Recombinant rHcp26/23 vaccine induced a partial immune response and had immune-protective effect against sheep hemonchosis.
Keywords: antigen, Haemonchus contortus, immunization, larval, rHcp26/23, sheep.
1. Kandil, O.M., Eid, N.A., Elakabawy, L.M., Abdelrahman, K.A. and Helal, M.A. (2015) Immunodiagnostic potency of different H. contortus antigens for diagnosis of experimentally and naturally Haemonchosis in Egyptian sheep. Acta Parasitol. Glob., 6(3): 238-247.
3. Razzaq, A., Ashraf, K., Maqbool, A., Islam, M., Hanan, A., Awais, M.M., Khetran, M.A., Jan, S., Shafee, M., Essa, M. and Kakar, H. (2014) Epidemiology, sero-diagnosis and therapeutic studies on nematodes infection in balochi range-sheep at district Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Iran. J. Parasitol., 9(2): 169-180. [PubMed] [PMC]
5. Arunkumar, S., Abdulbasith, S. and Gomathinayagam, S. (2012) A comparative analysis on serum antibody levels of sheep immunized with crude and thiol-purified excretory/secretory antigen of Haemonchus contortus. Vet. World, 5(5): 279-284. [Crossref]
6. Roberts, B., Antonopoulos, A., Haslam, S.M., Dicker, A.J., McNeilly, T.N., Johnston, S.L., Dell, A., Knox, D.P. and Britton, C. (2013) Novel expression of Haemonchus contortus vaccine candidate aminopeptidase H11 using the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Vet. Res., 44: 111. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
7. Piedrafita, D.P., Veer, M.J., Sherrard, J., Kraska, T., Elhay, M., Meeusen, E.N. (2012) Field vaccination of sheep with a larval-specific antigen of the gastrointestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus, confers significant protection against an experimental challenge infection. Vacuum, 30: 7199-7704. [Crossref]
8. Fawzi, E.M., Gonzalez-Sanchez, M.E., Corral, M.J., Alunda, J.M. and Cuquerella, M. (2014) Vaccination of lambs with the recombinant protein rHc23 elicits significant protection against Haemonchus contortus challenge. Vet. Parasitol., 211: 54-59. [Crossref] [PubMed]
9. El-Askalany, M.A., Mousa, W.M., Arafa, W.M., Aboelhadid, S.M., Mahdy, E.A. and Piedrafita, D.P. (2012) Vaccination of Egyptian balady goats (Capra hircus) against Haemonchus contortus with adult and larval extract. In: 7th Conference of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Alexandria University, Alexandria.
10. Arab, R.M.H., Abu El-Ezz, N.M.T., Deghidy, N.S., Awed, W.S.A. and Hasssan, N.M.F. (2013) Protective value of Haemonchus contortus adult worm purified antigen against haemonchosis in sheep. Glob. Vet., 11: 614-621.
11. Piedrafita, D., Preston, S., Kemp, J., Veer, M., Sherrard, J., Kraska, T., Elhay, M. and Meeusen, E.N. (2013) The effect of different adjuvants on immune parameters and protection following vaccination of sheep with a larval-specific antigen of the gastrointestinal nematode. Haemonchus contortus. PLoS One, 8(10): e78357. [Crossref]
12. Fawzi, E.M., Gonzalez-Sanchez, M.E., Corral, M.J., Cuquerella, M. and Alunda, J.M. (2015) Vaccination of lambs against Haemonchus contortus infection with a somatic protein (Hc23) from adult helminthes. Int. J. Parasitol., 44(7): 429-436. [Crossref] [PubMed]
13. Garcia-Coiradas, L., Angulo-Cubillan, F. and Mendez, S. (2009) Isolation and immuno- localization of a putative protective antigen (p26/23) from adult Haemonchus contortus. Parasitol. Res., 104: 363-369. [Crossref] [PubMed]
14. Garcia-Coiradas, L.F., Angulo-Cubillan, B., Valladares, E., Martinez, E., de la Fuente, C., Alunda, J.M. and Cuquerella, M. (2010) Immunization against lamb haemonchosis with a recombinant somatic antigen of Haemonchus contortus (rHcp26/23). Vet. Med. Int., 2010: Article ID: 852146, 8.
15. LeJambre, L.F., Windon, R.G. and Smith, W.D. (2008) Vaccination against Haemonchus contortus: Performance of native parasite gut membrane glycoproteins in Merino lambs grazing contaminated pasture. Vet. Parasitol., 153: 302-312. [Crossref]
16. Soulsby, E.J.L. (1986) Helminthes, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th ed. Bailliere Tindall, London.
17. Whitlock, J.H. (1960) Diagnosis of Veterinary Parasitisms. 1st ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
18. Alunda, J.M., Angulo-Cubillan, F. and Cupuerella, M. (2003) Immunization against ovine haemonchosis with three low molecular weight somatic antigens of adult Haemonchus contortus. J. Vet. Med. B, 50: 70-74. [Crossref] [PubMed]
19. Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951) Protein measurements with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265-275. [PubMed]
21. Towbin, H., Staehelin, T. and Gordon, J. (1979) Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: Procedure and some applications. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 176: 4350-4354. [Crossref]
22. Lupton, H.W., Barnes, H.J. and Reed, D.E. (1980) Evaluation of the rabbit as a laboratory model for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus infection. Cornell. Vet., 70: 77-95. [PubMed]
23. Kandil, O.M., Hendawy, S.H.M., El-Namaky, A.H., Gabrashanska, M.P. and Nanev, V.N. (2016) Evaluation of different Haemonchus contortus antigens for diagnosis of sheep haemonchosis by ELISA and their cross reactivity with other helminthes. J. Parasitol. Dis., https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12639-016-0865-3. Last accessed on 18-12-2016. [Crossref]
25. Schallig, H.D., van Leeuwen, M.A. and Cornelissen, A.W. (1997) Protective immunity induced by vaccination with two Haemonchus contortus excretory secretory proteins in sheep. Parasit. Immunol., 19: 447-453. [Crossref] [PubMed]
26. Bassetto, C.C., Picharillo, M.E., Newlands, G.F.J., Smith, W.D., Fernandes, S., Siqueira, E.R. and Amarante, A.F.T. (2014) Attempts to vaccinate ewes and their lambs against natural infection with Haemonchus contortus in a tropical environment. Int. J. Parasitol., 44: 1049-1054. [Crossref] [PubMed]
27. Coyne, C.P. and Brake, D. (2001) Characterization of Haemonchus contortus - derived cell populations propagated in vitro in a tissue culture environment and their potential to induce protective immunity in sheep. Int. J. Parasitol., 31: 359-376. [Crossref]28. Jasmer, D.P., Perryman, L.E., Conder, G.A., Crow, S. and McGuire, T. (1993) Protective immunity to Haemonchus contortus induced by immuno-affinity isolated antigens that share a phylogenetically conserved carbohydrate gut surface epitope. J. Immunol., 151: 5450-5460. [PubMed]