Article history: Received: 06-03-2017, Accepted: 28-04-2017, Published online: 24-06-2017
Corresponding author: Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Abo-Aziza FAM, Hendawy SHM, El Namaky AH, Ashry HM (2017) Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection, Veterinary World, 10(6): 679-687.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylus vulgaris (CSS), excretory-secretory S. vulgaris (ESS), crude somatic Cyathostomins (CSC), and excretory-secretory Cyathostomins (ESC).
Results: The results revealed highest 437.04% and lowest 37.81% immunoglobulin G (IgG) in high and low egg shedder groups when using ESC and CSS antigens, respectively. Antibodies index for ESS and CSC were significantly higher in moderate egg shedder group while that for ESS and CSC, ESC was significantly higher in high egg shedder group. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) balance in S. vulgaris infected donkeys was approximately equal in apparently healthy, low and high egg shedder groups while TNF-α < IL-4 in moderate egg shedder. In Cyathostomins infected animals, TNF-α/IL-4 balance was approximately equal in apparently healthy group while it was low in moderate and high egg shedder groups. The diagnostic accuracy showed that the higher specificity (46.6%) and prevalence (95.40%) were recorded by CSS and ESC antigens, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiling proved that the band at molecular weight 25 kDa is exhibited by CSS antigen.
Conclusion: Combination of detecting level of TNF-α/IL-4 balance, CSS antigen and IgG concentration is good tool for appropriate diagnosis of such infection. More advancement research must be done concerning Th1/Th2 balance and cross-reactivity of S. vulgaris and Cyathostomins spp. at the base of serological and molecular investigation.
Keywords: cytokines, interleukin-4, Strongylus, Th1, Th2, tumor necrosis factor alpha.
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