Article history: Received: 18-02-2017, Accepted: 13-04-2017, Published online: 07-06-2017
Corresponding author: N. Yimer
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Salah N, Yimer N (2017) Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows, Veterinary World, 10(6): 605-609.
Background: Endometritis, which is one of the most common diseases in dairy cows postpartum, causes severe economic losses, including increased open days, calving intervals, and numbers of services to achieve conception.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound method and its agreement with the endometrium cytology method, which is used to diagnose cytological endometritis in beef cows. Moreover, we determined which method has higher sensitivity and specificity at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted 20-35 days postpartum. A total of 53 clinically healthy beef cows (28 Brangus and 25 Kedah-Kelantan breeds) from three beef farms were obtained. All cows were evaluated at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, using ultrasound and cytobrush endometrial examination methods to diagnose cytological endometritis.
Results: Endometrial cytology result showed that 11.3% (6/53) and 9.4% (5/53) of the cows exhibited cytological endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, respectively. A weak-to-moderate agreement found between the diagnostic methods (k=0.29 - 0.50; p<0.01 and k=0.38 - 0.49) at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum respectively.
Conclusion: The percentage of beef cows that were positive to cytological endometritis was low (polymorphonuclear cells, =8%) at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Results showed that the ultrasound method is useful and practical for diagnosing endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. This method exhibited 60% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, and a 0.50 kappa value, especially when presence of intrauterine fluids and measurement of cervix diameter used in combination.
Keywords: beef cows, cytology, endometritis, polymorphonuclear cells, ultrasound.
2. Gilbert, R.O., Shin, S.T., Guard, C.L., Erb, H.N. and Frajblat, M. (2005) Prevalence of endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of dairy cows. Theriogenology, 64: 1879-1888. [Crossref] [PubMed]
4. LeBlanc, S.J., Duffield, T.F., Leslie, K.E., Bateman, K.G., Keefe, G.P. and Walton, J.S. (2002) Defining and diagnosing postpartum clinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 2223-2236. [Crossref]
5. Runciman, D.J., Anderson, G.A., Malmo, J. and Davis, G.M. (2008) Use of postpartum vaginoscopic (visual vaginal) examination of dairy cows for the diagnosis of endometritis and the association of endrometritis with reduced reproductive performance. Aust. Vet. J., 86: 205-213. [Crossref]
6. Studer, E. and Morrow, D.A. (1978) Postpartum evaluation of bovine reproductive potential: Comparison of findings from genital tract examination per rectum, uterine culture, and endometrial biopsy. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 172: 489-494. [PubMed]
8. Kasimanickam, R., Duffield, T.F., Foster, R.A., Gartley, C.J., Leslie, K.E. and Walton, J.S. (2004) Endometrial cytology and ultrasonography for the detection of subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology, 62: 9-23. [Crossref] [PubMed]
9. Kasimanickam, R., Duffield, T.F., Foster, R.A., Gartley, C.J., Leslie, K.E. and Walton, J.S. (2005) A comparison of the cytobrush and uterine lavage techniques to evaluate endometrial cytology in clinically normal postpartum dairy cows. Can. Vet. J., 46: 255-259. [PubMed] [PMC]
10. Barlund, C.S., Carruthers, T.D., Waldner, C.L. and Palmer, C.W. (2008) Comparison of diagnostic techniques for postpartum endometritis in dairy cattle. Theriogenology, 69: 714-723. [Crossref] [PubMed]
11. Mateus, L., da Costa, L., Bernardo, F. and Silva, J.R. (2002) Influence of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 37: 31-5. [Crossref] [PubMed]
12. Meira, E.B.S., Henriques, L.C.S., Sa, L.R.M. and Gregory, L. (2012) Comparison of ultrasonography and histopathology for the diagnosis of endometritis in Holstein-Friesian cows. J. Dairy Sci., 95: 6969-6973. [Crossref] [PubMed]
13. Madoz, L.V., Giuliodori, M.J., Jaureguiberry, M., Plontzke, J., Drillich, M. and la Sota, R.L. (2013) The relationship between endometrial cytology during estrous cycle and cutoff points for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 96: 4333-4339. [Crossref]
15. Baranski, W., Podhalicz-Dziegielewska, M., Zdunczyk, S. and Janowski, T. (2012) The diagnosis and prevalence of subclinical endometritis in cows evaluated by different cytologic thresholds. Theriogenology, 78: 1939-1947. [Crossref] [PubMed]
16. Senosy, W. and Hussein, H.A. (2013) Association among energy status, subclinical endometritis postpartum and subsequent reproductive performance in Egyptian buffaloes. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 140: 40-46. [Crossref] [PubMed]
17. McDougall, S., Hussein, H., Aberdein, D., Buckle, K., Roche, J. and Burke, C. (2011) Relationships between cytology, bacteriology and vaginal discharge scores and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Theriogenology, 76: 229-240. [Crossref] [PubMed]
18. Cheong, S.H., Nydam, D.V., Galvao, K.N., Crosier, B.M. and Gilbert, R.O. (2011) Cow-level and herd-level risk factors for subclinical endometritis in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 762-770. [Crossref] [PubMed]19. Walsh, S.W., Williams, E.J. and Evans, A.C.O. (2011) A review of the causes of poor fertility in high milk producing dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 123: 127-138. [Crossref] [PubMed]