Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Research (Published online: 05-03-2017)

3. In vitro evaluation of total mixed ration supplemented with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes for crossbred cows - Pravin Mohan Lunagariya, Ram Sharan Gupta and Subhash Parnerkar

Veterinary World, 10(3): 281-285



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.281-285


Pravin Mohan Lunagariya: Livestock Research Station, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India.

Ram Sharan Gupta: Department of Animal Nutrition Research, College of veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India.

Subhash Parnerkar: Department of Animal Nutrition Research, College of veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat, India.


Received: 18-10-2016, Accepted: 31-01-2017, Published online: 05-03-2017


Corresponding author: Pravin Mohan Lunagariya, e-mail:

Citation: Lunagariya PM, Gupta RS, Parnerkar S (2017) In vitro evaluation of total mixed ration supplemented with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes for crossbred cows, Veterinary World, 10(3): 281-285.

Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the levels of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on in vitro digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), total gas production (TGP), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and microbial biomass production (MBP).

Materials and Methods: The total mixed ration (TMR) was prepared using 30% each of sorghum hay and groundnut straw and 40% compound concentrate mixture to meet nutritional requirement of cow (500 kg) producing 12 kg fat corrected milk. The EFE was incorporated at 0, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340, 360, 380, and 400 mg/kg TMR. The TMR substrates with different levels of EFE were in vitro incubated to ascertain their effect on digestibility, gas production, and nutritive values.

Results: The significantly (p<0.05) higher and optimum in vitro digestibilities of DM (63.03%) and OM (63.62%) as well as TGP (72.35 ml/500 mg TMR) were observed at supplementation of 240 mg EFE/kg TMR, while ME (7.16 MJ/kg DM) and MBP (97.63 mg/500 mg TMR) were also better.

Conclusion: The incorporation of EFE at 240 mg/kg TMR resulted significantly (p<0.05) higher and optimum in vitro digestibilities of DM and OM. The TGP, ME, and MBP were also better. The levels of EFE 240 mg/kg TMR were found suitable for further in vivo study in crossbred cows.

Keywords: exogenous fibrolytic enzymes, in vitro digestibility, metabolizable energy, microbial biomass production, total gas production.

1. Varga, G.A. and Kolver, E.S. (1997) Microbial and animal limitations to fiber digestion and utilization. J. Nutr., 127: 819-824.
2. Beauchemin, K.A. and Rode, L.M. (1996) Use of Feed Enzymes in Ruminant Nutrition. Proceedings in Canadian Society of Animal Science. Annual Meeting, Lethbridge, Alberta. p103-140.
3. Wang, Y., Ramirez-Bribiesca, J.E., Yanke, L.J., Tsang, A. and McAllister, T.A. (2012) Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme application on the microbial attachment and digestion of barley straw in vitro. Asian Australas. J. Anim., 25(1): 66-74.
4. van de Vyver, W.F.J. and Cruywagen, C.W.C. (2013) Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to unlock nutrients: Histological investigation of its effects on fibre degradation in ruminants. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 43(5): S54-S59.
5. Miachieo, K. and Thakur, S.S. (2007) Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on the productive performance of lactating Sahiwal cows. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 24(1): 27-30.
6. Rajamma, K., Kumar, D.S., Rao, E.R. and Nath, D.N. (2014) Nutrient utilization in buffalo bulls fed total mixed rations supplemented with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 31(3): 213-217.
7. Morsy, T.A., Kholif, A.E., Kholif, S.M., Kholif, A.M., Sun, X. and Salem, A.Z.M. (2015) Effects of two enzyme feed additives on digestion and milk production in lactating Egyptian buffaloes. Ann. Anim. Sci., 16(1): 209-222.
8. Makkar, H.P.S. (2004) Recent advances in the in vitro gas method for evaluation of nutritional quality of feed resources. In: Assessing Quality and Safety of Animal Feeds. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome. p55-88. Available from: Downloaded on 28-4-2016.
9. NRC. (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Revised Edition. Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Available from: Last accessed on 25-08-2016.
10. AOAC. (1995) Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
11. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A. (1991) Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3583-3597.
12. Menke, K.H., Rabb, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. and Schneiser, W. (1979) The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. J. Agric. Sci., 93: 217-222.
13. Elghandour, M.M.M., Kholif, A.E., Márquez-Molina, O., Vázquez-Armijo, J.S., Puniya, A.K. and Salem, A.Z.M. (2015) Influence of individual or mixed cellulase and xylanase mixtures on in vitro rumen gas production kinetics of total mixed rations with different maize silage and concentrate ratios. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 39: 1-8.
14. Mir, M.A., Sharma, R.K., Rastogi, A. and Barman, K. (2015) Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia) in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat. Vet. World, 8(10): 1172-1176.
PMid:27047013 PMCid:PMC4774651
15. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994) Statistical Methods. 8th ed. Affiliated East-West Spress Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
16. Rajamma, K., Kumar, D.S., Rao, E.R. and Nath, D.N. (2015) In vitro evaluation of total mixed ration containing different roughage-concentrate ratios supplemented with or within fibrolytic enzymes. Anim. Sci. Report., 9(2): 63-69.
17. Issac, Y.M., Valli, C. and Balakrishnan, V. (2011) Enhancing utilization of sorghum stover and groundnut haulm by pre treating them with non-starch polysaccharidase mixture. Tamilnadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 7(3): 150-153.
18. Gemeda, B.S., Hassen, A. and Odongo, N.E. (2014) Effect of fibrolytic enzyme products at different levels on in vitro ruminal fermentation of low quality feeds and total mixed ration. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 24(5): 1293-1302.
19. Bhasker, T.V., Nagalakshmi, D. and Rao, D.S. (2012) Exogenous fibrolytic enzyme cocktail for improvement of nutrient utilization from sorghum stover in cattle. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 65(4): 325-328.
20. Faramarzi-Garmroodi, A., Mesgaran, M.D., Parand, E. and Vakili, A.R. (2013) In vitro effect of increasing levels of Natuzyme® on fermentation responses of corn silage based diet. Annu. Rev. Res. Biol., 3(4): 1066-1073.
21. Elghandour, M.M.Y., Salem, A.Z.M., Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M., Bórquez, J.L., Gado, H.M., Odongo, N.E. and Penuelas, C.G. (2013) Effects of exogenous enzymes on in vitro gas production kinetics and ruminal fermentation of four fibrous feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 179: 46-53.
22. Holtshausen, L., Chung, Y.H., Gerardo-Cuervo, H., Oba, M. and Beauchemin, K.A. (2011) Improved milk production efficiency in early lactation dairy cattle with dietary addition of a developmental fibrolytic enzyme additive. J. Dairy Sci., 94: 899-907.
23. Dey, A., Paul, S.S., Pandey, P. and Rathore, R. (2014) Influence of addition of fibrolytic bacterial culture on in vitro degradability of wheat straw, methanogenesis and fermentation metabolites in buffalo. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 31(3): 223-226.
24. Sipai, S.H., Dutta, K.S., Savsani, H.H., Murthy, K.S., Vataliya, P.H., Chavda, J.A. and Gajera, A.P. (2013) Inclusion of different exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to dry jowar fodder and their effect on in vitro total gas production. Vet. World, 6(11): 839-843.
25. Elghandour, M.M.Y., Kholif, A.E., Hernández, J., Mariezcurrena, M.D., López, S., Camacho, L.M., Márquez, O. and Salem, A.Z.M. (2016) Influence of the addition of exogenous xylanase with or without pre-incubation on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of three fibrous feeds. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 61(6): 262-272.
26. Thirumalesh, T. and Krishnamoorthy, U. (2013) Rumen microbial biomass synthesis and its importance in ruminant production. Int. J. Livest. Res., 3(2): 5-26.
27. Blair, R. (2011) Ingredients for Organic Diets: In Nutrition and Feeding of Organic Cattle. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK. p135.
28. Azzaz, H.H., Murad, H.A., Kholif, A.M., Morsy, T.A., Mansour, A.M. and El-Sayed, H.M. (2013) Increasing nutrients bioavailability by using fibrolytic enzymes in dairy buffaloes feeding. J. Biosci., 13: 234-241.
29. Morgavi, D.P., Beauchemin, K.A., Nsereko, V.L. and Rode, L.M. (2000) Synergy between ruminal fibrolytic enzymes and enzymes from Trichoderma longibrachiatum in degrading fibre substrates. J. Dairy Sci., 83: 1310-1321.
30. Yang, W.Z., Beauchemin, K.A. and Rode, L.M. (1999) Effects of an enzyme feed additive on extent of digestion and milk production of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 82: 391-403.
31. Nsereko, V.L., Beauchemin, K.A., Morgavi, D.P., Rode, L.M., Furtado, A.F., McAllister, T.A., Iwassa, A.D., Yang, W.Z. and Wang, Y. (2002) Effect of fibrolytic enzyme preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum on the rumen microbial population of dairy cows. Can. J. Microbiol., 48: 14-20.