Article history: Received: 26-11-2016, Accepted: 07-02-2017, Published online: 17-03-2017
Corresponding author: V. S. Dhaygude
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Dhaygude VS, Sawale GK, Chawak MM, Bulbule NR, Moregaonkar SD, Gavhane DS (2017) Molecular characterization of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet (Newcastle) disease virus from different outbreaks in desi chickens, Veterinary World, 10(3): 319-323.
Aim: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods.
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015). After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination. The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated eggs. Mean death time (MDT) of embryos after inoculation and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were used to judge velogenic nature of the virus. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from six cases and confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the partial fusion protein gene of the viral genome.
Results: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of desi chicken were presented for postmortem examination to Department of Veterinary Pathology, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai during 2014-2015. The gross and histopathological examination revealed lesions suggestive of viscerotropic velogenic form of the Newcastle disease (ND). The 20% tissue homogenate was inoculated into 9-day-old embryonated eggs from SPF chicken. NDV was isolated from six cases and confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the partial fusion protein gene. MDT of all the isolates was <60 h which indicated velogenic nature of the virus. ICPI of the isolates ranged between the 1.63 and 1.78. In four out of six outbreaks concurrent moderate to heavy infection of Ascardii galli in one flock and Railetina spp. in three flocks was also noted. In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all six outbreaks by gross and microscopic examination, virus isolation and RT-PCR.
Conclusion: In this study, viscerotropic velogenic form of ND was confirmed in all six outbreaks by gross and microscopic examination, virus isolation and RT-PCR. Nowadays, vaccine strains Lasota, B1 and F strains are used widely in India to control the infection of NDV. However, virulent NDV strains are still isolated frequently in the birds under backyard and also in commercial venture which demonstrates that NDV remains an on-going threat to commercial as well as backyard poultry flocks.
Keywords: mean death time, Newcastle disease virus, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, specific pathogen free, velogenic.
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