Article history: Received: 06-11-2016, Accepted: 07-04-2017, Published online: 28-05-2017
Corresponding author: Mrinalee Devi
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Devi M, Dutta JB, Rajkhowa S, Kalita D, Saikia GK, Das BC, Hazarika RA, Mahato G (2017) Prevalence of multiple drug resistant Streptococcus suis in and around Guwahati, India, Veterinary World, 10(5): 556-561.
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67) and diseased (n=230) pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. suis by biochemical characterization and polymerase chain reaction targeting the housekeeping gene glutamate dehydrogenase. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the recovered isolates against nine antibiotic groups comprising 17 antimicrobial agents was studied by standard method.
Results: Of the 497 samples examined, 7 (1.41%) isolates were confirmed to be S. suis of which 5 (1.87%) and 2 (0.87%) were derived from clinically healthy and diseased pigs, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, and erythromycin (100%) followed by the penicillin group and enrofloxacin (85.71%), ceftriaxone, doxycycline HCL, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol (71.43%), to kanamycin, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole (42.85%). The isolates showed least susceptibility to cefalexin, tetracycline and streptomycin (28.57%). All the five S. suis isolates from clinically healthy pigs were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxyclav, doxycycline HCl, gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin, 80.00% isolates susceptible to ampicillin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin, 60.00% to ceftriaxone, kanamycin and chloramphenicol, 40% to cefalexin, tetracycline, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Only 20.00% isolates were susceptible to streptomycin. Both the isolates recovered from diseased pigs were susceptible to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. On the other hand, both the isolates were resistant to cefalexin, tetracycline, doxycycline HCL, and kanamycin. Altogether five different resistance patterns (multi-drug resistance) were observed. Of the seven S. suis isolates, two isolates were susceptible to all the 17 antimicrobial agents, one isolate was resistant to four antimicrobial agents, two isolates to seven agents, one isolate to nine agents, and one isolate exhibited resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents.
Conclusion: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. suis in clinically healthy and diseased pigs and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. All the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin, and most of them were resistant to cefalexin, tetracycline and streptomycin. Five different patterns of antimicrobial resistance (multi-drug resistance) were observed.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, emerging zoonotic pathogen, multiple drug resistance, pathogen prevalence, Streptococcus suis.
2. Gottschalk, M. (2012) Streptococcosis. In: Karriker, L., Ramirez, A., Schwartz, K.J., Stevenson, G. and Zimmerman, J. editors. Diseases of Swine. Wiley Publishers, NJ, USA.
5. Wisselink, H.J., Veldman, K.T., Van den Eede, C., Salmon, S.A. and Mevius, D.J. (2006) Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine. Vet. Microbiol., 113: 73-82. [Crossref]
7. Feng, Y., Zhang, H., Wu, Z., Wang, S., Cao, M., Hu, D. and Wang, C. (2014) Streptococcus suis infection: An emerging/reemerging challenge of bacterial infectious diseases? Virulence, 5: 477-497. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
8. Hoa, N.T., Chieu, T.T., Nghia, H.D., Mai, N.T., Anh, P.H., Wolbers, M., Baker, S., Campbell, J.I., Chau, N.V., Hien, T.T., Farrar, J. and Schultsz, C. (2011) The antimicrobial resistance patterns and associated determinants in Streptococcus suis isolated from humans in Southern Vietnam, 1997-2008. BMC Infect. Dis., 11: 6. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
9. Zhang, C., Zhang, Z., Song, L., Fan, X., Wen, F., Xu, S. and Ning, Y. (2014) Antimicrobial resistance profile and genotypic characteristics of Streptococcus suis capsular Type 2 isolated from clinical carrier sows and diseased pigs in China. Biomed. Res. Int., 9: 1-10.
10. Soares, T.C.S., Paes, A.C., Megid, J., Ribolla, P.E.M., Paduan, K.S. and Gottschalk, M. (2014) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil. Can. J. Vet. Res., 78: 145-149. [PubMed] [PMC]
11. Vela, A.I., Moreno, M.A., Cebolla, J.A., Gonzalez, S., Latre, M.V., Dominguez, L. and Fernandez-Garayzabal, J.F. (2005) Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical strains of Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs in Spain. Vet. Microbiol., 105: 143-147. [Crossref] [PubMed]
12. Tarradas, C., Arenas, A., Maldonado, A., Luque, I., Miranda, A. and Perea, A. (1994a) Identification of Streptococcus suis isolated from swine: Proposal for biochemical parameters. J. Clin. Microbiol., 32: 578-580. [PubMed] [PMC]
13. Okwumabua, O., O'Connor, M. and Shull, E. (2003) A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for Streptococcus suis based on the gene encoding the glutamate dehydrogenase. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 218: 79-84. [Crossref] [PubMed]
14. Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institution Guidelines. (2008) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals: Approved Standards. 2nd ed. CLSI Document M31-A3.
15. Lakkitjaroen, N., Kaewmongkol, S., Metheenukul, P., Karnchanabanthoeng, A., Satchasataporn, K., Abking, N. and Rerkamnuaychoke, W. (2011) Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from slaughter pigs in Northern Thailand. Kasetsart J. Nat. Sci., 45: 78-83.
16. Kirdsin, A., Dejsirilert, S., Akeda, Y., Sekizaki, T., Hamada, S., Gottschalk, M. and Oishi, K. (2012) Fifteen Streptococcus suis serotypes identified by multiplex PCR. J. Med. Microbiol., 61: 1669-1672. [Crossref] [PubMed]
17. Sonowal, S., Barua, A.G., Hazarika, R.A., Rajkhowa, S., Barua, C.C. and Bhattacharya, D.K. (2014) Detection of glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdh) in Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 84(3): 287-288.
18. Nutravong, T., Angkititrakul, S., Panomia, N., Jiwakanon, N., Wongchanthong, W., Dejsirilert, S. and Nawa, Y. (2014) Identification of major Streptococcus suis serotypes 2, 7, 8 and 9 isolated from pigs and humans in upper Northeastern Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health, 45(5):1173-1181. [PubMed]
19. Li, L.L., Liao, X.P., Sun, J., Yang, Y.R., Liu, B.T., Yang, S.S., Zhao, D.H. and Liu, Y.H. (2012) Antimicrobial resistance serotypes, and virulence factors of Streptococcus suis isolates from diseased pigs. Foodborne Pathog Dis., 9: 583-588. [Crossref] [PubMed]
20. Onishi, H., Sugawara, M., Okura, M., Osaki, M. and Takamatsu, D. (2012) Prevalence of Streptococcus suis genotypes in isolates from porcine endocarditis in East Japan. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 74(12): 1681-1684. [Crossref]
21. Padungtod, P., Tharavichitkul, P., Junya, S., Chaisowong, W., Kadohira, M., Makino, S. and Sthitmatee, N. (2010) Incidence and presence of virulence factors of Streptococcus suis infection in slaughtered pigs from Chiang Mai, Thailand Southeast. Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health, 41(6): 1454-1461. [PubMed]
22. Rajkhowa, S., Devi, M. and Das, A. (2012) Isolation, characterization and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacteria associated with respiratory tract diseases of pigs. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 82(8): 851-853.
23. Callens, B.F., Haesebrouck, F., Maes, D., Butaye, P., Dewulf, J. and Boyen, F. (2013) Clinical resistance and decreased susceptibility in Streptococcus suis isolates from clinically clinically healthy fattening pigs. Microbial Drug Resist., 19(2):146-151. [Crossref] [PubMed]
24. Chen, L., Song, Y., Wei, Z., He, H., Zhang, A. and Jin, M. (2013) Antimicrobial susceptibility, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance genes, and multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus suis isolates from diseased pigs in China. J. Vet. Med. Sci., 75: 583-587. [Crossref]
25. Gurung, M., Tamang, M.D., Moon, D.C., Kim, S.R., Jeong, J.H., Jang, G.C., Jung, S.C., Park, Y.H. and Lim, S.K. (2015) Molecular basis of resistance to selected antimicrobial agents in the emerging zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. J. Clin. Microbiol., 53: 2332-2336. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
26. Tedde, M.T., Pilo, C., Frongia, M., Orru, G., Ruggeri, C. and Liciardi, M. (2016) Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in southern Italy (Sardinia). J. Swine Health Prod., 24(5): 253-258.27. Pineda, Y., de Lopez, A.G., de Aponte, F., de Parra, C. and Santander, J. (1996) Isolation of Streptococcus suis strains and in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Vet. Trop., 21(2): 155-165.