Article history: Received: 06-11-2016, Accepted: 07-04-2017, Published online: 28-05-2017
Corresponding author: Mrinalee Devi
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Devi M, Dutta JB, Rajkhowa S, Kalita D, Saikia GK, Das BC, Hazarika RA, Mahato G (2017) Prevalence of multiple drug resistant Streptococcus suis in and around Guwahati, India, Veterinary World, 10(5): 556-561.
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis and their resistance patterns isolated from both clinically healthy carriers and diseased pigs in and around Guwahati, Assam, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 497 samples were collected during October, 2012, to April, 2014, from clinically healthy (n=67) and diseased (n=230) pigs of varying age and either sex maintained under organized and unorganized farming systems. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. suis by biochemical characterization and polymerase chain reaction targeting the housekeeping gene glutamate dehydrogenase. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the recovered isolates against nine antibiotic groups comprising 17 antimicrobial agents was studied by standard method.
Results: Of the 497 samples examined, 7 (1.41%) isolates were confirmed to be S. suis of which 5 (1.87%) and 2 (0.87%) were derived from clinically healthy and diseased pigs, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, and erythromycin (100%) followed by the penicillin group and enrofloxacin (85.71%), ceftriaxone, doxycycline HCL, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol (71.43%), to kanamycin, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole (42.85%). The isolates showed least susceptibility to cefalexin, tetracycline and streptomycin (28.57%). All the five S. suis isolates from clinically healthy pigs were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxyclav, doxycycline HCl, gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin, 80.00% isolates susceptible to ampicillin, enrofloxacin and ofloxacin, 60.00% to ceftriaxone, kanamycin and chloramphenicol, 40% to cefalexin, tetracycline, clindamycin and co-trimoxazole, respectively. Only 20.00% isolates were susceptible to streptomycin. Both the isolates recovered from diseased pigs were susceptible to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, amikacin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. On the other hand, both the isolates were resistant to cefalexin, tetracycline, doxycycline HCL, and kanamycin. Altogether five different resistance patterns (multi-drug resistance) were observed. Of the seven S. suis isolates, two isolates were susceptible to all the 17 antimicrobial agents, one isolate was resistant to four antimicrobial agents, two isolates to seven agents, one isolate to nine agents, and one isolate exhibited resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents.
Conclusion: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. suis in clinically healthy and diseased pigs and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. All the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin and erythromycin, and most of them were resistant to cefalexin, tetracycline and streptomycin. Five different patterns of antimicrobial resistance (multi-drug resistance) were observed.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, emerging zoonotic pathogen, multiple drug resistance, pathogen prevalence, Streptococcus suis.
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