Article history: Received: 05-07-2017, Accepted: 04-10-2017, Published online: 16-11-2017
Corresponding author: Kadek Karang Agustina
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Agustina KK, Swacita IBN, Oka IBM, Dwinata IM, Traub RJ, Cargill C, Damriyasa IM (2017) Reducing zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs using a pig confinement system, Veterinary World, 10(11): 1347-1352.
Aim: This study was designed to validate the effectiveness of the pig confinement system (PCS) in reducing the prevalence of zoonotic and internal parasite burdens in pigs.
Materials and Methods: Ten PCS households were selected together with 10 households practising traditional scavenging systems. Five pigs were monitored per household every 3 months for 15 months and blood and feces collected. Pigs received a single dose of oxfendazole at 30 mg/kg at baseline. Qualitative fecal examinations for intestinal parasite stages were performed, and serum was tested for antibodies to cysticercus of Taenia solium, Trichinella spp., and Toxoplasma gondii.
Results: Based on fecal examination, the prevalence of pigs positive for parasite eggs was reduced in PCS pigs over consecutive samplings (Ascaris suum [14.3% to 0%], Trichuris suis [46.9% to 8.3%], Strongyle-type eggs [81.6% to 8.3%], Physocephalus spp. [6.1% to 0%], and Metastrongylus apri [20.8% to 0%]) compared with increases in the number of pigs positive for parasite eggs in non-PCS pigs (T. suis [20-61.5%], Strongyle-type [60.4-80.8%], Physocephalus spp. [8.3-15.4%], and M. apri [20.8-34.6%]) and little change in pigs positive for A. suum (18.8-19.2%). While the prevalence of pigs with antibodies against to cysticerci of T. solium reduced in PCS pigs from 18% to 14%, the prevalence in non-PCS pigs increased from 42% to 52%. Antibodies to Trichinella were not detected, but the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies increased from 6% to 10% in PCS pigs and from 7% to 24% in non-PCS pigs.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate the potential of a PCS to reduce the prevalence of pigs infected with zoonotic and internal parasites and thus the risk to human and pig health.
Keywords: confinement, parasite, pig, system, zoonotic.
1. Mahalaya, S., Kossay, L., Peters, D., Putra, I.M., Ketaren, P., Soplanit, A., Syahputra, A.T. and Cargill, C.F. (2014) The Development of a Pig Confinement System Suitable for Small Scale Commercial Production. The Proceedings 16th AAAP Conference, Yogyakarta Indonesia 10th-14th November. p1110-1113.
3. Choudhury, A.A.K., Conlan, J.V., Racloz, V.N., Reid, S.A., Blacksell, S.D., Fenwick, S.G., Thompson, A.R.C., Khamlome, B., Vongxay, K. and Whittaker, M. (2013) The economic impact of pig-associated parasitic zoonosis in northern Lao PDR. Eco Health, 10: 54-62. [Crossref]
4. Dutto, M. and Petrosillo, N. (2013) Hybrid Ascaris suum/lumbricoides (Ascarididae) infestation in a pig farmer: A rare case of zoonotic ascariasis. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health, 21(4): 224-226. [PubMed]
5. Swacita, I.B.N., Agustina, K.K., Polos, I.W., Fitriani, S. and Natalia, N. (2015) Seroprevalence survey of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Mimika Region, Papua. Bul. Vet. Udayana., 7(2): 172-178.
6. Lee, A. (2012) Internal Parasites of Pigs. Prime Fact 1149. 1st ed. Animal Biosecurity, New South Wales, Australia.
7. Agustina, K.K. (2013) Identification and prevalence of Strongyle type worm in pig in Bali. Bul. Vet. Udayana., 5(2): 131-138.
9. Jayashi, C.M., Kyngdon, C.T., Gauci, C.G., Gonzalez, A.E., Lightowlers, M.W. (2012) Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine. Vet. Parasitol., 188(2012): 261-267. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
11. Tang, F., Xu, L., Yan, R. and Li, X. (2013) A DNA vaccine co-expressing Trichinella spiralis MIF and MCD-1 with murine ubiquitin induce partial protective immunity in mice. J. Helminthol., 87(1): 24-33. [Crossref] [PubMed]
12. Ardana, I.B.K., Bakta, I.M. and Damriyasa, I.M. (2011), The use of ripe papaya seed powder to control infection of Ascaris suum in swine. J. Vet., 12(4): 335-340.
13. Cargill, C.F. and Mahalaya, S. (2015) Moving Families from Subsistence Animal Production to Small Commercial Production Using a Participatory Approach with a Multidisciplinary Team. The Proceedings 5th International Conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture for Developing Countries. p660-662.
14. Pondja, A., Neves, L., Mlangwa, J., Afonso, S., Fafetine, J., Willinghamd, A.L., Thamsborg, S.M. and Johansen, M.V. (2012) Use of oxfendazole to control porcine cysticercosis in a high-endemic area of mozambique. Plos. Negl. Trop. Dis., 6(5): e1651. [Crossref]
15. Cargill, C., Syahputra, T. and Damriyasa, I.M. (2008) Feeding Papaya Fruits and Betel Nuts to Reduce Parasite Burdens and Increase Growth Rate in Pigs. ACIAR Project Report: AH/2006/038.
16. Agustina, K.K., Dharmayudha, A.A.G., Oka, I.B.M., Dwinata, I.M., Kardena, I.M., Dharmawan, N.S. and Damriyasa, I.M. (2016) Case of entamoebiasis in pigs raised with a free range systems in Bali, Indonesia. J. Vet., 17(4): 570-575.
17. Arizono, N., Yoshimura, Y., Tohzaka, N., Yamada, M., Tegoshi, T., Onishi, K. and Uchikawa, R. (2010) Ascariasis in Japan: Is pig-derived Ascaris infecting humans? Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 63: 447-448. [PubMed]
18. Leles, D., Gardner, S.L., Reinhard, V., Iniguez, A. and Araujo, A. (2012), Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species? Parasite. Vectors, 5(42): 1-7. [Crossref]
19. Peng, W., Yuan, K., Zhou, X., Hu, M., El-Osta, Y.G. and Gasser, R.B. (2003) Molecular epidemiological investigation of Ascaris genotypes in China based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of ribosomal DNA. Electrophoresis, 24: 2308-2315. [Crossref] [PubMed]
20. Criscione, C.D., Anderson, J.D., Sudimack, D., Peng, W., Jha, B., Williams-Blangero, S. and Anderson, T.J.C. (2007) Disentangling hybridization and host colonization in parasitic roundworms of humans and pigs. Proc. R. Soc. B., 274: 2669-2677. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
22. Gilman, R.H., Gonzalez, A.E., Llanos-Zavalaga, F., Tsang, V.C.W. and Garcia, H.H. (2012) Prevention and control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Peru. Pathog. Glob. Health, 106(5): 312-318. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
23. Sah, R.B., Pokharel, P.K., Paudel, I.S., Acharya, A., Jha, N. and Bhattarai, S. (2012) A study of prevalence of Taenia infestation and risk factors. Kathmandu J. Med., 10(3): 14-17.
25. Silva, J.C.R., Ogassawara, S. and Adania, C.H. (2001) Seroprevalence of T. gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil. J. Vet. Parasitol., 102: 217-224. [Crossref]
26. Jittapalapong, S., Inpankaew, T., Pinyopanuwat, N. and Chimnoi, W. (2010) Epid of T. gondii infection of stray cats in Bangkok. J. Trop. Med. Public Health, 41(1): 13-18.27. Dubey, J.P., Bhaiyat, M.I., Macpherson, C.N., de Allie, C., Chikweto, A., Kwok, O.C. and Sharma, R.N. (2006) Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Grenada, West Indies. J. Parasitol., 92(5): 1107-1108. [Crossref] [PubMed]