Article history: Received: 04-07-2017, Accepted: 11-10-2017, Published online: 09-11-2017
Corresponding author: M. Ananda Chitra
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Ananda Chitra M, Jayalakshmi K, Ponnusamy P, Manickam R, Ronald BSM (2017) Dermatophilus congolensis infection in sheep and goats in Delta region of Tamil Nadu, Veterinary World, 10(11): 1314-1318.
Aim: The study was conducted to isolate and identify Dermatophilus congolensis (DC) using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in scab materials collected from skin infections of sheep and goats in the Delta region of Tamil Nadu.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 scab samples collected from 18 goats and 2 sheep from Nagapattinam, Thanjavur, and Tiruvarur districts of Tamil Nadu. Smears were made from softened scab materials and stained by either Gram's or Giemsa staining. Isolation was attempted on blood agar plates, and colonies were stained by Gram's staining for morphological identification. Identification was also done by biochemical tests and confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplified product.
Results: The peculiar laddering arrangement of coccoid forms in stained smears prepared from scab materials revealed the presence of DC. Isolated colonies from scab materials of sheep and goats on bovine blood agar plate were small, hemolytic, rough, adherent, and bright orange-yellow in color, but some colonies were white to cream color. Gram-staining of cultured organisms revealed Gram-positive branching filaments with various disintegration stages of organisms. 16S rRNA PCR yielded 500 bp amplicon specific for DC. Sequence analysis of a sheep DC isolate showed 99-100% sequence homology with other DC isolates available in NCBI database, and phylogenetic tree showed a close cluster with DC isolates of Congo, Nigeria, and Angola of Africa. Genes for virulence factors such as serine protease and alkaline ceramidase could not be detected by PCR in any of the DC strains isolated of this study.
Conclusion: The presence of dermatophilosis in Tamil Nadu was established from this study.
Keywords: 16S rRNA sequence analysis, Dermatophilus congolensis, sheep and goats, Tamil Nadu.
1. OIE (Office of International des Epizootics). (2008) Dermatophilosis: A Manual of Diagnostic tests for Terrestrial Animals. 5th ed. Office of International des Epizootics, Paris.
2. Zaria, L.T. (1993) Dermatophilus congolensis infection (dermatophilosis) in animals and man. An update. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 16(3): 179-222. [Crossref]
3. Haalstra, R.T. (1965) Isolation of dermatophilus congolensis from skin lesions in the diagnosis of streptothricosis. Vet. Rec., 77: 824-834.
4. Ananda Chitra.M., Jayanthy, C. and Nagarajan, B. (2015) Detection and sequence analysis of accessory gene regulator genes of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates. Vet. World, 8(7): 902-907. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
5. Shaibu, S.J., Kazeem, H.M., Abdullahi, U.S. and Fatihu, M.Y. (2010) The use of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of dermatophilosis from cattle, sheep and goats in Nigeria. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 6: 1034-1036. [Crossref]
6. Garcia-Sanchez, A., Cerrato, R., Larrasa, J., Ambrose, C.N., Parra, A., Alonso, J.M., Hermoso-de-Mendoza, M., Rey, J.M. and Hermoso-De-Mendoza, J. (2004) Identification of an alkaline ceramidase gene from Dermatophilus congolensis. Vet. Microbiol., 99: 67-74. [Crossref] [PubMed]
7. Garcia-Sanchez, A., Cerrato, R., Larrasa, J., Ambrose, C.N., Parra, A., Alonso, J.M., Hermoso-de-Mendoza, M., Rey, J.M., Mine, M.O., Carnegie, P.R., Ellis, T.M., Masters, A.M., Pemberton, A.D. and Hermoso-De-Mendoza, J. (2004) Characterisation of an extracellular serine protease gene (nasp gene) from Dermatophilus congolensis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 231: 53-57. [Crossref]
8. Saceghem, R.V. (1915) Dermatose contagieuse (Impetigo contagieux). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 8: 354-359.
9. Kharolem, U., Gupta, P.P., Singh, B. and Dhingra, P.N. (1976) Dermatophilosis (streptothricosis) in a buffalo calf (Bubalus bubalis). Zentbl. Vet. Med. B, 23: 604-608. [Crossref]
10. Pal, M. (1995) Prevalence in India of Dermatophilus congolensis infection in clinical specimens from animals and humans. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 14(3): 857-863. [Crossref]
11. Tresamol, P.V. and Saseendranath, M.R. (2015) Diagnosis of dermatophilosis in dairy cattle in Kerala, India. Indian J. Anim. Res., 49(5): 709-712. [Crossref]
12. Reddy, S.B., Prameela, D.R., Sivajothi, S., Venkatasivakumar, R. and Raju, K.G. (2014), Dermatophilosis in cross-bred cattle in Y.S.R. district of Andhra Pradesh. Int. J. Sci. Environ. Tech., 3(4): 1371-1374.
13. Tresamol, P.V., Saseendranath, M.R., Subramanian, H., Pillai, U.N., Mini, M. and Ajithkumar, S. (2015) Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 34(3), 04092015-00058-EN. [Crossref]
14. Shaibu, S.J., Kazeem, H.M., Abdullahi, U.S. and Fatihu M.Y. (2011) Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of isolates of Dermatophilus congolensis from cattle, sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 5: 467-474.
15. Wen-Xing, H., Yu, C., Jingmei, W., Yuvanzhi, W. and Gen-Quiang, Y. (2007) Establishment of Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Dermatophilosis in Sheep. Available from: http://www.paper.edu.cn/en/paper.serial number200704-270.
16. Oladunni, F.S., Oyekunle, M.A., Talabi, A.O., Ojo, O.E., Takeet, M.I., Adam, M. and Raufu, I.A. (2016) Phylogenetic analysis of Dermatophilus congolensis isolated from naturally infected cattle in Abeokuta and Ilorin, Nigeria. Vet. Med. Sci., 2: 136-142. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
17. Skalka, B., Pospisil, L. (1992) Haemolytic interactions of Dermatophilus congolensis. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B, 39: 139-143. [Crossref]
18. Master, A.M., Ellis, T.M., Grein, S.B. (1997) Dermatophilus congolensis: Strain differences in expression of phospholipase activities. Vet. Microbiol., 57: 199-213. [Crossref][Crossref]