Article history: Received: 14-07-2017, Accepted: 15-09-2017, Published online: 15-10-2017
Corresponding author: Marwa Badawy Salman
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Hamed OM, Sabry MA, Hassanain NA, Hamza E, Hegazi AG, Salman MB (2017) Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in some food products and human stool in Egypt, Veterinary World, 10(10): 1233-1240.
Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a severe public health issue worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant STEC in retail meat and milk products and human stool samples and to characterize the genes encoding for virulence and antibiotic resistance among the identified STEC isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 260 food samples were randomly collected from retail markets in different localities of El Giza Governorate, Egypt. 50 stool specimens were obtained from children that had diarrhea at Embaba Fever Hospital. All collected samples were initially subjected to bacteriological examination and serotyping, and then subsequently, the isolates were exposed to polymerase chain reaction application and sequencing for the identification of the virulence-related genes. Finally, the virulent STEC isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility.
Results: Serotyping of the 76 biochemically identified isolates showed that 18 were STEC with a predominance of non- O157 (16) while 2 O157:K-serotype was detected only in one food and one human isolate. Molecular identification of the virulence genes illustrated that the minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC (8%) as compared to the other food products. In the humans, the O157 was the only serotype that expresses the Shiga toxin-associated gene (eaeA). Antibiotic susceptibility test displayed that 13 of the 17 food and human isolates (76.47%) were resistant to cephalothin (KF30). 9 of the 13 cephalothin-resistant isolates harbor the β lactamase (blaTEM)-resistant gene. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and gentamicin. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the stx2-positive minced meat isolate revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia.
Conclusion: This study showed the predominance of non-O157 among the identified isolates. Minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC as compared to the other food products, and this work illustrates the necessity to consider the food products as a potential source of the non-O157 STEC serotypes. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia. This highlights the high probability of worldwide spread of such serotypes, signifying the importance of the one world concept.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance bacteria, cheese, DNA sequencing, human stool, meat, polymerase chain reaction, serotyping, shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.
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