Article history: Received: 24-04-2017, Accepted: 08-08-2017, Published online: 11-09-2017
Corresponding author: Mst. Minara Khatun
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Haque MM, Sarker MAR, Rifa RA, Islam MA, Khatun MM (2017) Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh, Veterinary World, 10(9): 1040-1045.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine bacterial load as well as characterize bacterial flora of ready to eat (RTE) betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh city.
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 RTE betel leaf samples were collected from five local markets such as Kamal-Ranjit (KR) market, Shesh more, Kewatkhali, Jobber more, and Ganginar par.
Results: Total viable count of bacteria in betel leaf (log10 mean colony forming unit±standard deviation/ml) was 7.58±0.04 for KR market, 7.72±0.06 for Shesh more, 7.62±0.04 for Kewatkhali, 7.40±0.03 for Jobber more, and 7.60±0.06 for Ganginar par. A total of 98 bacterial isolates belong to five genera (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were identified. The prevalence of E. coli was 17.34%, Salmonella spp. was 25.51%, Vibrio spp. was 19.39%, Bacillus spp. was 18.37%, and Staphylococcus spp. was 19.39%. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolates were sensitive to two antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Four isolates (E. coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were resistant to two antibiotics (ampicillin and cephalexin). Antibiogram profile of bacterial isolates of betel leaf suggests that they were multidrug resistance.
Conclusion: Data of this study indicate that betel leaf sold at local market harbors multidrug resistance food-borne bacteria which might cause public health hazards if these antibiotic resistant transfer to human through food chain.
Keywords: betel leaf, food-borne bacteria, Mymensingh city, public health importance.
1. Shameem, P.M.D., Thirumal, M., Srilekha, A., Ushajain, D., Kumar, V.V., Kumar, S.N., Rishi, I.A., Nayak, C.N. and Chandy, V. (2013) A preliminary antimicrobial screening on leaves of Piper betle Linn. Contemp. Invest. Obs. Pharm., 2: 22-26.
2. Chakraborty, D. and Shah, B. (2011) Antimicrobial, anti-oxidative and anti-hemolytic activity of Piper betle leaf extracts. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 3: 192-199.
3. Parmer, V.S., Jain, S.C. and Bisht, K.S. (1997) Phytochemistry of genus Piper. Phytochemistry, 46: 597-673. [Crossref]
4. Karim, R. (2014) Infected betel leaves threaten tk 15b export of fresh fruits, vegetable to EU. http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/2014/05/27/36134/print. Accessed on 06-06-2014.
5. Chowdhury, K.R. and Kallol, A.S. (2013) EC Warns Bangladesh of Illegal Betel Leaves Export. Dhaka Tribune. Available from: http://www.dhakatribune.com/business/commerce/2014/02/05/ec-warns-bangladesh-of-illegal-betel-leaves-export/ Last accessed on 06-02-2017.
6. Husna, A.A., Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.T. and Khatun, M.M. (2015) Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf. J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 2: 190-194. [Crossref]
7. Carter, G.R. (1986) Studies on Pasteurella multocida. A hemaglutination test for the identification of serological types. J. Vet. Res., 16: 481-484.
8. Guan, S., Xu, R., Chen, S., Odumeru, J. and Gyles, C. (2002) Development of a procedure for discriminating among Escherichia coli isolates from animal and human sources. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68: 2690-2698. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
9. Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Shrris, J.C. and Truck, M. (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 45: 493-496. [PubMed]
10. CLSI. (2012) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twenty Second Informational Supplement M100-S22. Vol. 32. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Wayne, PA. p10-78.
11. Nawas, T., Mazumdar, R.M., Das, S., Nipa, N.N., Islam, S., Bhuiyan, H.R. and Ahmad, I. (2012) Microbiological quality and anti-biogram of E. coli, Salmonella and Vibrio of salad and water from restaurants of Chittagong. J. Environ. Sci. Nat. Resour., 5: 159-166.
12. Mercy, A.I., Peters, O. and Kolo, I. (2011) Bacterial contaminants of salad vegetables in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Nigeria. Malays. J. Microbiol., 7: 111-114.
13. Fakruddin, M., Sultana, R., Hossain, M.N., Rahaman, M.M., Kamrul, M.I. and Ahmed, M.M. (2017) Occurrence of ingression of Salmonella spp. In betel leaf (Piper betle L.). Int. J. Food. Contam., 4: 1-10.
14. Singh, B.R., Singh, M., Singh, P., Babu, N., Chandra, M. and Agarwal, R.K. (2006) Prevalence of multidrug- resistant Salmonella on ready-to-eat betel leaves (Paan) and in water used for soaking betel leaves in North Indian cities. J. Food Prot., 69: 288-292. [Crossref]
15. Mishra, V. and Mishra, A. (2005) A study of betel leaf microflora. Asian J. Exp. Sci., 19: 59-62.
16. Sharmin, S. (2013) Characterization of bacteria from salad vegetables of local markets and its public health implications. M.S. Thesis. Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Science, BAU, Mymensingh.
17. Sharada, R., Krishnappa, G., Raghavan, R., Sreevinas, G. and Upandra, H.A. (1999) Isolation and serotyping of Escherichia coli from different pathological conditions in poultry. Indian J. Poult. Sci., 34: 366-369.
18. Thomas, A.R., Bruce, A.D., Stacy, A., Genagon, N.M., Warholic, U.M., Patrick, D., Pawlicki, J.M., Beannan, R.O., Burce, A.H. and Paul, R.K. (2005) Escherichia coli virulence factor hemolysin induces neutrophil apoptosis and necrosis/lysis in vitro and lung injury in a rat pneumonia model. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol., 289: 207-216. [Crossref] [PubMed]
19. Khan, A.W., Hossain, S.J. and Uddin, S.N. (2007) Isolation, identification and determination of antibiotics susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from shrimps at Khulna region of Bangladesh. Res. J. Microbiol., 2: 216-227. [Crossref]
20. Faruque, S.M., Sack, D.A., Sack, R.B., Colwell, R.R., Takeda, Y. and Najir, G.B. (2008) Emergence and evaluation of Vibrio cholera O139. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America No. 100. p1304-1309.
22. Cheesbrough, M. (1985) Microbiology. In: Medical Laboratory Manual for Tropical Countries. 1st ed. English Language Book Society, London. p400-480.
23. Buxton, A. and Fraser, G. (1977) Animal Microbiology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London, Edinburg, Melbourne. p400-480.
24. Cowan, S.T. (1985) Cowan and Steel's Manual for Identification of Bacteria. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London. p96-98.
25. Merchant, I.A. and Packer, R.A. (1967) The genus Salmonella. In: Veterinary Bacteriology and Virology. 7th ed., Vol. 43. Iowa State University Press, Ames. Iowa, USA. p286-306.
26. Granum, P.E. (2001) Bacillus cereus. In: Doyle, M.P., Beuchat, L.R. and Montville, T.J., editors. International Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC. p373-381.
27. Chatterjee, C., Nag, N.C. and Ray, J.P. (1990) Studies on coagulase status and biochemical characters of animal strains of Staphylococci. Indian J. Anim. Health, 29: 157-161.28. Zinnah, M.A., Haque, M.H., Islam, M.T., Hossain, M.T., Bari, M.R., Babu, S.A., Rahman, M.T. and Islam, M.A. (2008) Drug sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated of samples of different biological and environmental sources. Bangladesh J. Vet. Med., 6: 13-18.