Open Access
Research (Published online: 12-09-2017)
7. Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature
Tridib Debnath, Santanu Bera, Suman Deb, Prasenjit Pal, Nibash Debbarma and Avijit Haldar
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1052-1056

Tridib Debnath: ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region, Tripura Centre, Agartala, Lembucherra - 799 210, Tripura, India; Department of Livestock Production Management, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata - 700 037, West Bengal, India.
Santanu Bera: Department of Livestock Production Management, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata - 700 037, West Bengal, India.
Suman Deb: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura, India.
Prasenjit Pal: Department of Extension and Social Sciences, College of Fisheries, Central Agricultural University, Lembucherra - 799 210, Tripura, India.
Nibash Debbarma: ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region, Tripura Centre, Agartala, Lembucherra - 799 210, Tripura, India.
Avijit Haldar: ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region, Tripura Centre, Agartala, Lembucherra - 799 210, Tripura, India.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.1052-1056

Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]

Article history: Received: 18-05-2017, Accepted: 11-08-2017, Published online: 12-09-2017

Corresponding author: Avijit Haldar


Citation: Debnath T, Bera S, Deb S, Pal P, Debbarma N, Haldar A (2017) Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature, Veterinary World, 10(9): 1052-1056.

Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT) data of radio frequency based digital (RFD) thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB) thermometer in dairy cattle.

Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean) body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done.

Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05) before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05) in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer.

Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.

Keywords: cattle, exercise, feeding, radio frequency device, rectal temperature, thermometer.


1. Silanikove, N. (2000) Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livest. Prod. Sci., 67: 1-18. [Crossref]

2. Brown-Brandt, T.M., Yanagi, T.Jr., Xin, H., Gates, R.S., Bucklin, R.A. and Ross, G.S. (2003) A new telemetry system for measuring core body temperature in livestock and poultry. Appl. Eng. Agric., 19: 583-589.

3. Dalal, S. and Zhukovsky, D.S. (2006) Pathophysiology and management of fever. J. Support. Oncol., 4: 9-16. [PubMed]

4. Benzaquen, M.E., Risco, C.A., Archbald, L.F., Melendez, P., Thatcher, M.J. and Thatcher, W.W. (2007) Rectal temperature, calving-related factors, and the incidence of puerperal metritis in postpartum dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 90: 2804-2814. [Crossref] [PubMed]

5. Mathews, K.H.Jr., Vandeveer, M. and Gustafson, R.A. (2006) An Economic Chronology of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in North America. Economic Research Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

6. Joo, Y.S., An, S.H., Kim, O.K., Lubroth, J., Sur, J.H. (2002) Foot-and-mouth disease eradication efforts in the Republic of Korea. Can. J. Vet. Res., 66: 122-124. [PubMed] [PMC]

7. McLaws, M., Ribble, C., Martin, W. and Wilesmith, J. (2009) Factors associated with the early detection of foot-and-mouth disease during the 2001 epidemic in the United Kingdom. Can. Vet. J., 50: 53-60. [PubMed] [PMC]

8. Park, J.H., Lee, K.N., Ko, Y.J., Kim, S.M., Lee, H.S., Shin, Y.K., Sohn, H.J., Park, J.Y., Yeh, J.Y., Le, Y.H., Kim, M.J., Joo, Y.S., Yoon, H., Yoon, S.S., Cho, I.S. and Kim, B. (2013) Control of foot-and-mouth disease during 2010-2011 epidemic, South Korea. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 19: 655-659. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

9. Carpenter, T.E., O'Brien, J.M., Hagerman, A.D. and McCarl, B.A. (2011) Epidemic and economic impacts of delayed detection of foot-and-mouth disease: A case study of a simulated outbreak in California. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest., 23: 26-33. [Crossref] [PubMed]

10. Bewley, J.M. (2006) Automatic Temperature Monitoring: What are the Potential Benefits? Available from: temperature monitoring potential benefits.pdf. Accessed on 29-07-2015.

11. Bewley, J.M. and Schutz, M.M. (2010) Recent studies using a reticular bolus system for monitoring dairy cattle core body temperature. In: Paper Presented at the Procceeding First North American Conferences Precision Dairy Management, Toronto, Canada.

12. Suthar, V., Burfeind, O., Maeder, B. and Heuwieser, W. (2013) Agreement between rectal and vaginal temperature measured with temperature loggers in dairy cows. J. Dairy Res., 80: 240-245. [Crossref] [PubMed]

13. Piccione, G., Gianesella, M., Morgante, M. and Refinetti, R. (2013) Daily rhythmicity of core and surface temperatures of sheep kept under thermoneutrality or in the cold. Res. Vet. Sci., 95: 261-265. [Crossref] [PubMed]

14. Piccione, G., Rizzo, M., Casella, S., Marafioti, S. and Fazio, F. (2014) Application of the iButton for measurement of the rumen temperature circadian rhythms in lambs. Biol. Rhythm. Res., 45: 375-381. [Crossref]

15. Hoffmann, G., Schmidt, M., Ammon, C., Rose-Meierhofer, S., Burfeind, O., Heuwieser, W. and Berg, W. (2013) Monitoring the body temperature of cows and calves using video recordings from an infrared thermography camera. Vet. Res. Commun., 37: 91-99. [Crossref] [PubMed]

16. Martello, L.S., da Luz, E.S.S., da Costa, G.R., da Silva, C.R.R. and Leme, P.R. (2016) Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions. Int. J. Biometeorol., 60: 173-181. [Crossref]

17. Futagawa, M., Iwasaki, T., Ishida, M., Kamado, K., Ishida, K. and Sawada, K. (2010) A real-time monitoring system using a multimodal sensor with an electrical conductivity sensor and a temperature sensor for cow health control. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49: 04DL12. [Crossref]

18. Zhang, P., Sadler, C.M., Lyon, S.A. and Martonosi, M. (2004) Hardware design experiences in ZebraNet. Processdings of SenSys, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. [Crossref]

19. Sikka, P., Corke, P., Valencia, P., Crossman, C., Swain, D. and Bishop-Hurley, G. (2006) Wireless Adhoc Sensor and Actuator Networks on the Farm. Processdings of IPSN'06. p492-499. [Crossref]

20. Maselyne, J., Adriaens, I., Huybrechts, T., de Ketelaere, B., Millet, S., Vangeyte, J., Van Nuffel, A. and Saeys, W. (2015) Measuring the drinking behaviour of individual pigs housed in group using radio frequency identification (RFID). Animal, 11: 1-10.

21. N.R.C. (2001) Nutrient requirement of dairy cattle. Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources. 7th revised ed. Washington DC, USA, National Research Council, National Academics Press.

22. SAS 9.3. (2012) Foundation for Microsoft Windows. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

23. Reid, D.E. (2014) The use of implantable microchips for body temperature collection in cattle. Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Sciences in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA.

24. Debnath, T., Bera, S., Deb, S., Pal, P., Debbarma, N., Das Choudhury, D. and Haldar A. (2016) Real-time monitoring of peripheral body temperature using non-invasive, selfpowered, sensor based radio-frequency device in goats (Capra hircus). Samll Rumin. Res., 144: 135-139. [Crossref]

25. Blessing, W., Mohammed, M. and Ootsuka, Y. (2012) Heating and eating: Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis precedes food ingestion as part of the ultradian basic rest-activity cycle in rats. Physiol. Behav., 105: 966-974. [Crossref]

26. Hayashi, K., Ito, N., Ichikawa, Y. and Suzuki, Y. (2014) Effect of postprandial thermogenesis on the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab., 39: 920-926. [Crossref] [PubMed]

27. Binns, A., Gray, M. and Di Brezzo, R. (2015) Thermic effect of food, exercise, and total energy expenditure in active females. J. Sci. Med. Sport., 18: 204-208. [Crossref] [PubMed]

28. Neves, E.B., Vilaca-Alves, J., Antunes, N., Felisberto, I.M., Rosa, C. and Reis, V.M. (2015) Different Responses of the Skin Temperature to Physical Exercise: Systematic Review. Conference Proceedings IEEE Medicine and Biology Society. p1307-1310. [Crossref]

29. Butts, C.L., McDermott, B.P., Buening, B.J., Bonacci, J.A., Ganio, M.S., Adams, J.D., Tucker, M.A. and Kavouras, S.A. (2016) Physiologic and perceptual responses to cold-shower cooling after exercise-induced hyperthermia. J. Athl. Train., 51: 252-257. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]