Article history: Received: 23-01-2018, Accepted: 14-03-2018, Published online: 19-04-2018
Corresponding author: Yassir Adam Shuaib
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Mohamed EM, Mohamed Elfadil AA, El-Sanousi EM, Ibrahaem HH, Mohamed-Noor SE, Abdalla MA, Shuaib YA (2018) Seroprevalence and risk factors of caprine brucellosis in Khartoum state, Sudan, Veterinary World, 11(4): 511-518.
Aim: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to July 2012 in Khartoum state, Sudan, to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats and to investigate potential risk factors associated with this disease.
Materials and Methods: A total of 307 serum samples were collected from both sexes of goats in four different localities and were subjected to testing for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA).
Results: The overall seroprevalence was 11.4% (n=35) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) ranging from 7.80 to 15.0. Out of these 35 RBPT-positive samples, the positivity of 18 and 17 were confirmed by SAT and cELISA, respectively. A significant statistical variation was observed between brucellosis seroprevalences in goats purchased from local animal markets and goats that were raised at the farm. Conversely, such significant variations were not observed among the categories of other risk factors with seroprevalences ranging from 3.0% (95% CI between 0.40 and 7.20) to 16.3% (95% CI between 10.4 and 22.3). Location (χ2=9.33, df=3, p=0.02), breed (χ2=3.52, df=1, p=0.05), herd size (χ2=6.59, df=2, p=0.03), and herd expansion (χ2=5.39, df=1, p=0.02) were associated with RBPT-positive status for brucella in the two-tailed Chi-square test. In addition, Sharq an-Nil locality and goats raised at the farm had increased odds of being RBPT positive.
Conclusion: Brucellosis was detected in goats in all surveyed localities. An effort should be made to educate goat owners/herders about brucellosis as well as about the importance of vaccination.
Keywords: brucellosis, goats, risk factors, rose bengal plate test, seroprevalence, Sudan.
1. Corbel J.M. (2006) Brucellosis in Humans and Animals. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
2. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.C. and Hinchcliff, K.W. (2007) Disease caused by Brucella spp. A Textbook of the Disease of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses. 10th ed. ELBS Bailliere Tindall, London, UK. p870-871.
3. Ahmed, O.M., Elmeshri, E.S., Abuzweda, R.A., Blauo, M., Abouzeed, M.Y., Ibrahim, A., Salem, H., Alzwam, F., Abid, S., Elfahem, A. and Elrais A. (2010) Seroprevalence of brucellosis in animals and humans population in the western mountains region in Libya. Eur. Surveill., 15(30): 19625. [PubMed]
4. Rahman, S.M., Faruk, O.M., Her, M., Kim, Y.J., Kang, I.S. and Jung, C.S. (2011) Prevalence of brucellosis in ruminants in Bangladesh. Vet. Med. Czech, 56: 379-385. [Crossref]
5. McDermott, J.J. and Arimi, S.M. (2002) Brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa: Epidemiology, control and impact. Vet. Microbiol., 90: 111-134. [Crossref]
6. Negash, E., Shimelis S. and Beyene, D. (2011) Seroprevalence of small ruminant brucellosis and its public health awareness in selected sites of Dire Dawa region, Eastern Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health, 4: 61-66.
7. Wegdan, O.M., El-Fadil, A.A., Elgadal, A.A. and Shuaib, Y.A. (2016) Seroprevalence and risk factors of anti-brucella antibodies in cattle in Khartoum State, the Sudan. J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 3: 134-144. [Crossref]
8. MARF. (2009). Department of Statistic and Information. Annual Report. Ministry of Animal Resources and Fisheries, Khartoum, the Sudan.
9. IGAD. (2007) Livestock Policy Initiative, the Political Economy of Livestock and Pastoralism in Sudan. IGAD LPI Working Paper No. 06-08, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. p1-5.
10. FAO. (2010) First Report on: The State of Genetic Resources in Sudan Livestock.
11. Musa, T.M. (2006), Caprine brucellosis under different husbandry systems in Darfur States, Sudan. Sudan J. Vet. Res., 21: 57-66.
12. Shuaib, Y.A. (2011) Peste des Petits Ruminants in Sheep in the Sudan: A Study on Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors. Master Thesis. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
13. Ahmed, M.M. (2004) Studies on Animals' Brucellosis in Red Sea State, Sudan. Master Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, the Sudan.
14. Rayas, A.R. (2004), Studies on Caprine Brucellosis in Nyala area, South Darfur State, Master Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, the Sudan.
15. Thrusfield, M. (2007) Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd ed., Ch. 13. Black Well Science Ltd., United Kingdom. p228-246.
16. OIE. (2009) Terrestrial Manual Chapter 2.4.3. Bovine brucellosis. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Paris, France.
17. Musa, T.M., Enaam, M.E., Angara, E.E. and Ali, A.A. (2008) Brucellosis, a Challenge to Veterinarians in Africa: The Situation of the Disease in the Sudan, The Proceedings of the First Scientific Conference (ARRC), Animal Resources Research Corporation, 17-21/8/2008. Khartoum, Sudan. p45-56.
18. Khuzaima, B.A., Hatim, H.I., Shuaib, Y.A., Mohamed-Noor, S.E., Elgadal, A.A., Shigidi, M.T. and Nimir, A.H. (2018) Seroprevalence of anti-brucella antibodies in goats in El-Gedarif state, Eastern Sudan. ARC J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 4: 1-8.
19. Nisreen, A.H. (2006) Prevalence of Caprine Brucellosis in Khartoum North, Khartoum State, Master Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, the Sudan.
20. El-Ansary, H.E., Mohammed, A.B., Hamad, A.A. and Karom, O.A. (2001) Brucellosis among animals and human contacts in Eastern Sudan. Saudi Med. J., 7: 577-579.
21. Saleh, Y.M. (2010) Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle, Sheep and Goats of West Darfur State, Sudan. Master Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North, the Sudan.
22. Samah, M.A. (2015), Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Caprine Brucellosis in El-Genaina, West Darfur, Sudan. Master Thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum North, the Sudan.
23. Solafa, Z.E., Angara, T.E., Elfadil, A.A., El-Sanousi, E.M. and Ibrahim, A.M. (2014) Prevalence and risk factors of ruminants brucellosis in Jabel Aolia locality, Sudan. Sudan J. Sci. Tech., 15: 60-72.
24. Omran, O.M. and Musa M. T. (2015) Prevalence of brucellosis in different animal species and man and isolation of Brucella abortus biovars 1 and 6 from cattle in Sennar state. Sudan J. Vet. Res., 30: 25-28.
25. Zein, A.M. (2015) Short communication: Prevalence of brucellosis in farm animals in Northern State, Sudan. Sudan J. Vet. Res., 30: 43-44.
26. Hegazy, M.Y., Moawad, A., Osman, S., Ridler, A. and Guitian, J. (2011) Ruminant brucellosis in the Kafr El sheikh governorate of the Nile Delta, Egypt: Prevalence of neglected a zoonosis. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis., 5: e944. [Crossref]
27. Molla, B. and Delil, F. (2015) Mapping of major diseases and devising prevention and control regimen to common diseases in cattle and shoats in Dassenech district of South Omo Zone, South-Western Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 47: 45-51. [Crossref]
28. Ashagrie, T., Deneke, Y., Tolosa, T. (2011) Seroprevalence of caprine brucellosis and associated risk factors in South Omo Zone of Southern Ethiopia. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 5: 1682-1476.
29. Ashenafi, F., Teshale, S., Ejeta, G., Fikru, R. and Laikemariam, Y. (2007) Distribution of brucellosis among small ruminants in the pastoral region of Afar, Eastern Ethiopia. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 26: 731-739. [Crossref]
30. Boukary, A.R., Saegerman, C., Abatih, E., Fretin, D. and Alambe, B.R. (2013) Seroprevalence and potential risk factors for Brucella Spp. Infection in traditional cattle, sheep and goats reared in Urban, Periurban and rural areas of Niger, PLoS One, 8: e83175. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
31. Muma, J., Samui, K., Siamudaala, V., Oloya, J., Matope, G., Omer, M., Munyeme, M., Mubita, C. and Skjerve, E. (2006) Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and individual risk factors of infection in traditional cattle, goats and sheep reared in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 38: 195-206. [Crossref]
32. Solorio-Rivera, L.J., Segura-Correa, C.J. and Sanchez-Gil, G.L. (2007) Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis of goats in herds of Michoacan, Mexico, Prev. Vet. Med., 82: 282-290. [Crossref] [PubMed]
33. Bertu, J.W., Ajogi, I., Bale, O.O.J., Kwaga, P.K.J. and Ocholi, A.R. (2010) Seroepidemiology of brucellosis in small ruminants in Plateau State, Nigeria, Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 4: 1935-1938.
34. Al-Majali, M.A. (2005) Seroepidemiology of caprine brucellosis in Jordan. Prev. Vet. Med., 44: 167-173. [Crossref]
35. Gall, D. and Nielsen, K. (2004) Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis: A review of test performance and cost comparison. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 23: 989-1002. [Crossref]36. Marin, V., Mellado, J., Garcia, J.E., Gaytan, L. and Mellado, M. (2016) Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in free-range goats. ISR J. Vet. Med., 71: 14-20.