Article history: Received: 08-12-2017, Accepted: 26-03-2018, Published online: 23-04-2018
Corresponding author: Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti Wahyuni
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Wahyuni AETH, Tabbu CR, Artanto S, Setiawan DCB, Rajaguguk SI (2018) Isolation, identification, and serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum from quails in Indonesia with typical infectious coryza disease symptoms, Veterinary World, 11(4): 519-524.
Background and Aim: Infectious coryza (IC) or snot is an infectious upper respiratory disease affecting chickens and birds, including quails, and it is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. The symptoms of IC are facial swelling, malodorous nasal discharge, and lacrimation. This study aimed to isolate, identify, and serotype the A. paragallinarum of snot in quails and to determine the sensitivity and resistance to several antibiotics.
Materials and Methods: Nine quails from Yogyakarta, Indonesia with typical snot disease symptoms were used in this study. The nasal swab was obtained and directly streaked onto a chocolate agar plate and blood agar plate (BAP), then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h. Staphylococcus spp. was cross-streaked onto the BAP to show the satellite growth. The observation of the morphology of the suspected colony, Gram staining, and biochemical tests (catalase test, oxidase test, urease test, peptone test, and carbohydrate fermentation such as maltose, mannitol, lactose, and sorbitol) are done to identify the species of bacteria. This research also detects the serovar of A. paragallinarum using hemagglutination inhibition test. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were also performed using several antibiotics against five A. paragallinarum isolates that were cultured on Mueller-Hinton Agar and added with antibiotic discs, then incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C for 24-48 h.
Results: Five isolates out of nine suspected isolates (55.5%) were A. paragallinarum. The growth of isolates from quails did not depend on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) (NAD-independent). Sensitivity test was done using the five identified A. paragallinarum isolates, results showed that they were 100% sensitive to amoxicillin (AMC) and ampicillin (AMP); 100% resistant toward amikacin (AK), erythromycin (E), gentamycin (CN), and tetracycline (TE); 80% resistant toward kanamycin (K) and trimethoprim (W); 60% resistant toward chloramphenicol (C); and 20% toward enrofloxacin (ENR). The antibiotics that have an intermediate sensitivity (in between sensitive and resistant) were ENR and K, 80% and 20%, respectively. Three out of five A. paragallinarum isolates were identified as serovar B of A. paragallinarum using HI test.
Conclusion: Five out of nine isolates (55.5%) from quails with typical IC disease symptoms identified as A. paragallinarum and sensitive toward AMC and AMP. Three out of five A. paragallinarum isolates were identified as serovar B.
Keywords: antibiotic sensitivity test, Avibacterium paragallinarum, infectious coryza, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-independent.
1. Blackall, P.J. and Hinz, K. (2008) Infectious Coryza and Related Disease. In: Pattison, M., Mc Mullin, P.F., Bradbury, J.M. and Alexander, D.J., editors. Poultry Disease. 6th ed. WB Saunders. Company, London. p155-159. [Crossref]
2. Garcia, A.J., Angulo, E., Blackall, P.J. and Ortiz, A.M. (2004) The presence of nicotinamide adenine dinecleotide-independent Haemophilus paragallinarum in Mexico. Avian Dis., 48: 425-429. [Crossref] [PubMed]
3. Quinn, P.J., Markey, B.K., Carter, M.E., Donelly, W.J.C. and Leonard, F.C. (2004) Veterinary Microbiolgy and Microbial Disease, Blackwell Publishing, UK. p273-277. [PubMed]
4. Blackall, P.J., Christensen, H., Beckenham, T., Blackall, L.L. and Bisgaard, M. (2005) Reclassification of Pasteurella gallinarum, Haemophilus paragallinaarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 55: 353-362. [Crossref] [PubMed]
5. Akhter, S., Ali, M., Das, P.M. and Hossain, M.M. (2013) Isolation and identification of Avibacterium paragallinarum, the causal agent of infectious coryza (IC) from layer chickens in Bangladesh. J. Bangladesh Agric. Univ., 11: 87-96.
6. Durairajan, R., Sharma, M. and Murugan, M.S. (2013) Detection of Avibacterium paragallinarum in commercial poultry and their antibiogram. Tamil Nadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 9: 332-337.
7. Patil, V.V., Mishra, D.N. and Mane, D.V. (2016) Isolation, characterization and serological study of Avibacterium paragallinarum field isolates from Indian poultry. J. Anim. Poult. Sci., 5: 13-20.
8. Ariyanti, T. and Supar . (2007) Pengendalian coryza infeksius pada ayam. Wartazoa, 17: 185-191.
9. Vegad, J.L. and Katiyar, A.K. (2008) A Textbook of Veterinary Special Pathology. International Book Distributing Co., New Delhi. p304-306.
10. Shane, S.M. (2005) Coryza: Handbook on Poultry Disease. American Soybean Association, Singapore. p99-100.
11. Tabbu, C.R. (2000) Penyakit Ayam dan Penanggulangannya. Vol. 1. Kanisius, Yogyakarta. p14-20.
12. El-Sawah, A., Soliman, Y.A. and Shafey, S.M. (2014) Molecular characterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum strain used in evaluation of coryza vaccine in Egypt. J. Am. Sci., 8: 253-263.
13. Muhammad, T.M.N., dan Sreedevi, B. (2015) Detection of Avibacterium paragallinarum by polimerase chain reaction from outbreaks of infectious coryza of poultry in Andhra Pradesh. Vet. World, 8: 103-108. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
14. Patil, V.V., Mishra, D. and Mane, D.V. (2017) 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and molecular serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from Indian field conditions. Vet. World, 10: 1004-1007. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
15. Patil, V., Mishra, D. and Mane, D. (2017) Virulence pattern of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates studied from Indian field condition. Int. J. Livestock Res., 7: 201-207. [Crossref]
16. Blackall, P.J. and Yamamoto, R. (1989) Infectious Coryza. In: Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens. 3th ed. American Association of Avian Pathogens, Inc., Iowa. p27-31.
17. Quinn, P.J., Markey, B.K., Leonard, F.C., Fitzpatrick, E.S., Fanning, S. and Hartigan, P.J. (2011) Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa. p451-460.
18. Akhter, S., Saha, S., Khan, K.A., Amin, M.M. and Haque, M.E. (2014) Isolation and identification of Avibacterium paragallinarum from layer chickens in Gazipur, Bangladesh. Microbes Health, 3: 9-11. [Crossref]
19. Blackall, P.J. and Soriano, E.V. (2008) Infectious coryza and related bacterial. In: Disease of Poultry. 12th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. p789-803. [Crossref]
20. Markey, B.K., Leonard, F.C., Archambault, M. (2013) Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Mosby Elseiver, Edinburgh. p307-314.
21. Leboffe, M.J. and Pierce, B.E. (2011) A Photographic for The Microbiology Laboratory. Atlas Edition. Morton Publishing, US. p55, 71-73, 74-75, 82, 96-97.
22. Thenmozi, V. and Malmarungan, S. (2013) Isolation and Identification and Antibiogram Pattern of Avibacterium paragallinarum from Japanese Quails. Tamil Nadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 9: 253-258.
23. Eaves, L.E., Rogers, D.G. and Blackall, P.J. (1989) Comparison of hemagglutinin and agglutinin schemes for the serological classification of Haemophilus paragallinarum and proposal of a new hemagglutinin serovar. J. Clin. Microbiol., 27: 1510-1513. [PubMed] [PMC]
24. Sawata, A., Kume, K. and Nakase, Y. (1982) Hemagglutination of Haemophilus paragallinarum serotype 2 organisms: Occurrence and immunologic properties of hemagglutinin. Am. J. Vet. Res., 43: 1311-1319. [PubMed]
25. Chukiatsiri, K., Sasipreeyajan, J., Blackall, P.J., Yuwatanichsampan, S. and Chansiripornchai, N. (2012) Serovar identification, antimicrobial sensitivity and virulence of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from chickens in Thailand. Avian Dis., 56: 359-364. [Crossref] [PubMed]
26. CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). (2008) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals; Approved Standard, 3rd Ed. M31-A3. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
27. Ali, M., Hossain, M.S., Akter, S., Khan, M.A.H.N.A. and dan Hossain, M.M. (2013) Pathogenesis of infectious coryza in chickens (Gallus gallus) by Avibacterium paragallinarum isolate of Bangladesh. Agriculturists, 11: 39-46. [Crossref]
28. Anjaneya, Singh, S.D., Dhama, K., Gowthaman, V. and Chawak, M.M. (2013) Pathogenicity study of field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum in experimentally infected birds. Indian J. Vet. Pathol., 37: 13-17.
29. Kaur, J., Sharma, N.S., Kuldip, G. and Amarjit, S. (2004) Epidemiological studies on IC in chickens in Northern India. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 74: 462-465.
30. Priya, P.M., Krishna, S.V., Dineskhumar, V. and Mini, M. (2012) Isolation and charaecterization of Avibacterium paragallinarum from ornamental birds in Thrissur, Kerala. Int. J. Life Sci., 1: 87-88.
31. Bragg, R.R. (2002). Virulence of south African isolates of Haemophillus paragallinarum. Part 2: Naturally occuring NAD-independent field isolates. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 65: 171-175.
32. Blackall, P.J. and Reid, G.G. (1982) Pathogenicity of Australian isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum and Haemophilus avium in chicken. Vet. Biol., 9: 77-82.
33. Blackall, P.J. (2008) Infectious coryza. In: A Laboratory Manual for the Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., Iowa. p22-26.
34. Badouei, M.A., Sadrzadeh, A., Azad, N., Blackall, P., Madadgar, O. and Charkhkar, S. (2014) Isolation and molecular identification of Avibacterium paragallinarum in suspected cases of infectious coryza. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 38: 46-49.
35. Wang, Y., Hsieh, M.K., Tan, D.Y., Shien, J.H., Ou, S.C., Chen, C.F. and Chang, P.C. (2014) The hemagglutinin of Avibacterium paragallinarum is a trimeric autotransporter adhesin that confers haemagglutination, cell adherence and biofilm formation activities. J. Vet. Microbiol., 174: 474-482. [Crossref] [PubMed]
36. Hsu, Y.M., Shieh, H.K., Chen, W.H., Sun, T.Y. and Shiang, J.H. (2007) Antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid profiles and haemocin activities of Avibacterium paragallinarum strains. J. Vet. Microbiol., 124: 209-218. [Crossref] [PubMed]
37. Rajurkar, G., Roy, A. and Yadav, M.M. (2010) An overview on epidemiologic investigations of infectious coryza. Vet. World, 2: 401-403.38. Poernomo, S., Sutarma, Raffie, M. and Blackall, P.J. (2000) Characterisation of isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum from Indonesia. Aust. Vet. J., 78: 759-762. [Crossref] [PubMed]