Article history: Received: 27-12-2017, Accepted: 07-03-2018, Published online: 23-04-2018
Corresponding author: Areeg Mohamed Almubarak
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Almubarak AM, Abass NA, Badawi ME, Ibrahim MT, Elfadil AA, Abdelghafar RM (2018) Pseudopregnancy in goats: Sonographic prevalence and associated risk factors in Khartoum State, Sudan, Veterinary World, 11(4): 525-529.
Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of pseudopregnancy in goats and to investigate potential risk factors associated with the condition in Khartoum State.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to February 2016. A total of 378 female goats which presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, for routine ultrasonographic pregnancy diagnosis were examined. Ultrasound scanning was performed using a real-time scanner equipped with dual-frequency (3.5-5 MHz) curvilinear transducer.
Results: The results showed that the prevalence of pseudopregnancy in goats in Khartoum State was 10.6%. Risk factors such as general body condition (χ2=5.974; p=0.05), age (χ2=11.760; p=0.0129), type of estrus (χ2=12.794; p=0.000), and previous reproductive performance (χ2=13.397; p=0.020) showed significant association (p≤0.05) with the occurrence of pseudopregnancy in the univariate analysis. Breed (χ2=12.627; p=0.082), milk yield (χ2=5.951; p=0.114), type of feeding (χ2=1.721; p=0.190), season (χ2=2.661; p=0.264), locality (χ2=7.66; p=0.264), parity number (χ2=0.451; p=0.767), and rearing system (χ2=1.593; p=0.451) were not significantly associated with pseudopregnancy.
Conclusion: The prevalence of pseudopregnancy in goats in Khartoum State was 10.6%. Pseudopregnancy in goats is significantly associated with age, type of estrus, general body condition, and previous reproductive performance. This study showed for the first time that pseudopregnancy is a real reproductive problem in goats in Khartoum State.
Keywords: goat, hydrometra, prevalence, risk factors, Sudan, ultrasound.
1. Smith, M.C. and Sherman, D.M. (2009) Goat Medicine. 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. p871. [Crossref]
2. MOAR. (2012) Ministry of Animal Resources-Information Center. Estimate of Livestock Population by States. Khartoum, Sudan.
3. Elrasheed, M.M., Faki, H.M. and Elobied, H.A. (2010) Desert sheep in Kordofan Area-Sudan: Production and marketing. J. Sci. Tech., 11: 17-22.
4. Greyling, J. (2010) Applied reproductive physiology. In: Solaiman, S.G., editor. Goat Science and Production. 1st ed. Wiley-Blackwell, USA. p140-155.
6. Medan, M.S. and Abd-El-Aty, A.M. (2010) Advances in ultrasonography and its applications in domestic ruminants and other farm animals reproduction. J. Adv. Res., 1: 123-128. [Crossref]
7. Santiago-Moreno, J., Gonzalez-Bulnes, A., Gomes-Brunet, A., Toledano-Diaz, A. and Lopez-Sebastian, A. (2005) Prediction of gestational age by transrectal ultrasonographic measurements in the Mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon). J. Zoo Wildl Med., 36: 457-462. [Crossref] [PubMed]
8. Azevedo, E., Aguair, F.C., Freitas, N.L., Robelo, M., Santos, M., Lima, B., Freitas, V. and Oliveira, M. (2007) Ultrasound fetal measurement parameters for early estimate of gestational age and birth weight in ewe. Med. Vet., 1: 56-61.
9. Godfrey, R.W., Larson, L., Weis, A.J. and. Willard, S.T. (2010) Evaluation of ultrasonography to measure fetal size and heart rate as predictors of fetal age in hair sheep. Sheep Goat Res. J., 25: 60-65.
11. Pieteres, M.C. and Taverne, M.A. (1986) Hydrometra in goats: Diagnosis with real-time ultrasound and treatment with prostaglandins or oxytocin. Theriogenology, 26: 813-821. [Crossref]
12. Hafez, B. and Hafez, E. (2000) Reproduction in Farm Animals. 7th ed. Lippincott William &Wilkins, USA.
13. Souza, J.M., Maia, A.L., Brandao, F.Z., Vilela, C.G., Oba, E., Bruschi, J.H. and Fonseca, J.F. (2013) Hormonal treatment of dairy goats affected by hydrometra associated or not with ovarian follicular cyst. Small Rumin. Res., 111: 104-109. [Crossref]
14. Kornalijnslijper, J.E., Bevers, M.M., Van Oord, H.A. and Taverne, M.A. (1997a) Induction of hydrometra in goats by means of active immunization against prostaglandin F2a. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 46: 109-122. [Crossref]
15. Reddy, R., Arunakumari, G., Anil, K.R., Muralimohan, K. and Sunil, A. (2014) Efficacy of cloprostenol therapy in hydrometra goats. Indian J. Anim. Reprod., 35: 39-41.
16. Wittek, T., Richter, A., Erices, J. and Elze, K. (1997) Incidence, diagnosis, therapy and subsequent fertility in goats with hydrometra. Tierarztl. Prax., 25: 576-582.
17. Purohit, G.N. and Mehta, J.S. (2012) Hydrometra in goats (Capra hircus): Clinical analysis of 26 cases. Rumin. Sci., 1: 117-119.
18. Noakes, D.E., Parkinson, T.J. and England, G.C. (2009) Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 9th ed. W. B. Saunders, Elsevier, USA.
19. Taverne, M.A., Hesselink, J.W., Bevers, M.M., Van Oord, H.A. and Kornalijnslijper, J.E. (1995) Aetiology and endocrinology of pseudopregnancy in the Goat. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 30: 228-230. [Crossref]
20. Kornalijnslijper, J.E., Kemp, B., Bevers, M.M., Van Oord, H.A. and Taverne, M.A. (1997b) Plasma prolactin, growth hormone and progesterone concentration in pseudopregnant, hysterectomized and pregnant goats. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 49: 169-178. [Crossref]
22. Moraes, W.P., Santos, M.H., Arruda, I.J., Bezerra, F.Q., Aguiar, F.C.R., Neves, J.P., Lima, P.F. and Oliveira, M. (2007) Hydrometra and mucometra in goats diagnosed by ultrasound and treated with PGF2a. Med. Vet., 1: 33-39.
24. Lopes, E.S. Jr., Cruz, J.F., Teixeira, D.I., Lima, V.J.B., Paula, N.R., Rodnina, D. and Freitas, V.J. (2004) Pseudopregnancy in Saanen goats (Capra hircus) raised in Northeast Brazil. Vet. Res. Commun., 28: 119-125. [Crossref]
25. Ahmed, B.H., Hamad, R.J. and Abdelghafar, R.M. (2010) Ultrasonography for diagnosis of hydrometra and pyometra (two case reports). Assiut Vet. Med. J., 56: 225-230.
26. Almubarak, A.M., Abdelghafar, R.M. and Badawi, M.E. (2016) Hydrometra in a goat-diagnosis, treatment and subsequent fertility. Int. J. Livestock Res., 6: 114-118. [Crossref]
27. Thrusfield, M. (2007) Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd ed. Black Well, Oxford. UK. [PubMed]
28. Goddard, P.J. (1996) Veterinary Ultrasonography. Cab International. Wallingford, Oxon OXI0 8DE. UK. p329.