Article history: Received: 03-11-2017, Accepted: 27-02-2018, Published online: 07-04-2018
Corresponding author: Alaa Hani Al-Charrakh
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Al-Ali HJ, Al-Rodhan MA, Al-Hilali SA, Al-Charrakh AH, Al-Mohana AM, Hadi ZJ (2018) Molecular detection of serotype groups of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from gallbladder of cattle and sheep in Iraq, Veterinary World, 11(4): 431-436.
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the occurrence of serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogen, in gallbladder samples from cattle and sheep.
Materials and Methods: Three hundred samples were collected and screened for the presence of L. monocytogenes. The identification of the isolates was confirmed by API-Listeria system and by the presence of hemolysin (hyl) gene. The isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-based serotype identification with d1 (division 1), d2 (division 2), glt, mama (mismatch amplification mutation assay), and flaA (flagellin protein) genes.
Results: A total of 8 (2.7%) L. monocytogenes were recovered from 6 (4.0%) samples of sheep and 2 (1.3%) samples of cattle. All isolates showed positive results with Hly primers. Four isolates carried d1 gene, did not possess glt gene and harbored mama gene. The serotypes of these isolates were identified as 4a or 4c. The other 4 isolates carried d2 gene, 3 of them were positive with the FlaA primers, and hence, determined to be a 1/2a or 3a serotype, and 1 isolate was determined to be 1/2c or 3c serotype.
Conclusion: This study concluded that the presence of 1/2a serotype in gallbladder samples indicates public health risk through cross-contamination of meat at slaughterhouses.
Keywords: cattle, gallbladder, Listeria monocytogenes, molecular detection, sheep.
1. Vazquez-Boland, J.A., Kuhn, M., Berche, P., Chakraborty, T., Dominguez-Bernal, G., Goebel, W., Gonzalez-Zorn, B., Wehland, J. and Kreft, J. (2001) Listeria pathogenesis and molecular virulence determinants. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 14: 584-640. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
2. Liu, D., Lawrence, M., Austin, F.W. and Ainsworth, A.J. (2005) Comparative assessment of acid, alkali and salt tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes virulent and avirulent strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 243: 373-378. [Crossref] [PubMed]
4. Glaser, P., Frangeul, L., Buchrieser, C., Rusniok, C., Amend, A., Baquero, F., Berche, P., Bloecker, H., Brandt, P. and Chakraborty, T. (2001) Comparative genomics of Listeria species. Science, 294: 849-852. [PubMed]
6. Borucki, M.K., Gay, C.C., Reynolds, J., McElwain, K.L., Kim, S.H., Call, D.R. and Knowles, D.P. (2005) Genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes strains from a high-prevalence dairy farm. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 71: 5893-5899. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
7. Tappero, J.W., Schuchat, A., Deaver, K.A., Mascola, L. and Wenger, J.D. (1995) Reduction in the incidence of human listeriosis in the United States. Effectiveness of prevention efforts? JAMA, 273: 1118-1122. [Crossref]
8. Aarts, H.J., Hakemulder, L.E. and Van Hoef, A.M. (1999) Genomic typing of Listeria monocytogenes strains by automated laser fluorescence analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprint patterns. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 49: 95-102. [Crossref]
9. Al-Shukri, M.S. (2010) Molecular and Genetic Study of Some Virulence Factors of Listeria monocytogenes. Ph.D. Thesis. Babylon University.
10. OIE Terrestrial Manual. (2012) Listeria monocytogenes. The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial manual). Ch. 2.9.7. 7th ed. OIE Terrestrial Manual, Paris, France.
11. Barrow, G.I. and Feltham, R.K.A. (2003) Cowan and Steels' Manual for Identification of Medical Bacteria. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom.
12. Al-Zubaidi, K.I. (2006) Natural and Experimental Study for the Localization of the Listeria monocytogenes in some of the Internal and its Role in the Spread of the Disease. M.Sc Thesis. Baghdad University.
13. Marien, M., Decostere, A., Werbrouck, H. and Van Coillie, E. (2007) Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Ghent University, Salisburylaan, Merelbeke, Belgium. p133, B-9820.
14. Vitas, A.I. and Garcia-Jalon, V.A. (2004) Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh and processed foods in Navarra (Spain). Int. Food Microbiol., 90: 349-356. [Crossref]
15. Lunden, J., Autio, T., Markkula, A., Hellstrom, S. and Korkeala, H. (2003) Adaptive and cross-adaptive responses of persistent and non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains to disinfectants. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 82: 265-272. [Crossref]
16. Lunden, J., Autio, T., Sjoberg, A.M. and Korkeala, H. (2003) Ecology of persistent and non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains in meat and poultry processing plants. J. Food Protect., 66: 2062-2069. [Crossref] [PubMed]
17. Borch, E., Nesbakken, T. and Christensen, H. (1996) Hazard identification in swine slaughter with respect to foodborne bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 30: 9-25. [Crossref]
18. Al-Dughaym, A.M., Elmula, A.F., Mohamed, G.E., Hegazy, A.A., Radwan, Y.A., Housawi, F.M.T. and Gameel, AA. (2001) First report of an outbreak of ovine septicaemic listeriosis in Saudi Arabia. Rev. Sci. Tech. Int. Epiz, 20: 777-783. [Crossref]
19. Wiggins, H.S. and Woothen, D.P. (1958) Studies in bile acids. Conjugated bile salts of certain primates. Biochem J., 70: 439. [Crossref]
20. Snyth, J.D. (1962) Lysis of Echinococcus granulosus by surfaces active agent in bile and role of this phenomenon in determining host specificity in helminthes. Proc. R. Soc. B., 156: 553-572. [Crossref]
21. Bonardi, L.M., Groppi, F. and Mainardi, H.S. (2002) High specific activity: Radioactivity tracers a powerful tool for studying very low level and long-term exposure to different chemical forms of both essential and toxic elements. Microchem. J., 73: 153-166. [Crossref]
24. Graves, L.M., Swaminathan, B. and Hunter, SB. (1999) Subtyping Listeria monocytogenes. In: Ryser, E.T., Marth, E.H., editors. Listeria, Listeriosis and Food Safety. Marcel Dekker Incorporation, New York. p279-298.
25. Gasanov, U., Hughes, D. and Hansbro, P.M. (2005) Methods for the isolation and identification of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes: A review. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 29: 851-875. [Crossref] [PubMed]
26. Lei, X.H., Fiedler, F., Lan, Z. and Kathariou, S. (2001) A novel serotype specific gene cassette (gltA-gltB) is required for expression of teichoic acid associated surface antigens in Listeria monocytogenes of serotype 4b. J. Bacteriol., 183: 1133-1139. [Crossref]
29. Aarnisalo, K., Autio, T., Sjoberg, A., Lunden, J., Korkeala, H. and Suihko, M. (2003) Typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolates originating from the food processing industry with automated ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Food Protect., 66: 249-255. [Crossref]
30. Wallace, F.M., Call, J.E., Porto, A.C.S., Cocoma, G.J., ERRC Special Projects Team, and Luchansky, J.B. (2003) Recovery rate of Listeria monocytogenes from commercially prepared frankfurters during extended refrigerated storage. Food Protect., 66: 584-591. [Crossref]
31. Gilot, P., Genicot, A. and Andre, P. (1996) Serotyping and esterase typing for analysis of Listeria monocytogenes populations recovered from foodstuffs and from human patients with listeriosis in Belgium. Clin. Microbiol., 34: 1007-1010.