Article history: Received: 13-10-2017, Accepted: 08-01-2018, Published online: 10-02-2018
Corresponding author: Ezenduka Ekene Vivienne
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Vivienne EE, Josephine OO, Anaelom NJ (2018), Effect of temperature (cooking and freezing) on the concentration of oxytetracycline residue in experimentally induced birds, Veterinary World, 11(2): 167-171.
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying temperatures (different cooking methods and freezing) on the concentration of oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in tissues of broiler birds.
Materials and Methods: Fifty, 5-week-old birds were purchased and acclimatized for 3 weeks while being fed antibiotic-free feed and water. Four birds were then tested for residue and in the absence; the remaining birds were injected intramuscularly with oxytetracycline at its therapeutic dose. Muscle and liver samples of the treated birds were harvested and checked for OTC residues before subjecting them to boiling, microwaving, and roasting. The three plate test was used for the residue detection.
Results: OTC was detected at both pH 6.0 and pH 7.2 but not detected at pH 8.0. Roasting and boiling significantly reduced the concentration of oxytetracycline in muscle by 53.6% and 69.6%, respectively, at pH 6.0, microwaving reduced the concentration by 49.1% but was not statistically significant. The same pattern was followed at pH 7.2 with reduction of 34.3%, 53.2%, and 67.7% for microwaved, roasted, and boiled. For the liver tissues, there was a significant reduction in the concentration for both pH: 6.0 (57.75%, 79.75%, and 89%; pH 7.2 (48.06%, 79.6%, and 88.79%) for boiled, microwaved, and roasted samples. Boiling had a greater reduction effect for muscle samples while roasting had a greater reduction in liver samples at both pHs. Freezing at -10°C had no effect on the concentration of OTC even after 9 days.
Conclusion: The significant reduction of OTC concentration by cooking indicates that consumers may not be at risk of the effects of OTC residues in meat, but microwaving meat may not reduce the concentration below the maximum residue limit if the initial concentration is very high. Therefore, routine monitoring of drug residues in farms and abattoirs is still advocated.
Keywords: antimicrobials, cooking methods, drug residue, oxytetracycline.
1. Muhammad, D.M., Umair, H.K., Uruj, T.B. and Asad F. (2017) Antimicrobial drug residues in poultry products and implications on public health: A review Int. J. Food Props., 7(20): 1433-1446.
2. Sajid, A., Kashif, N., Kifayat, N. and Ahmad, S. (2016) Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 29(5): 1691-1694. [PubMed]
3. Cetinkaya, F., Yibar, A., Soyutemiz, G.E., Okutan, B., Ozcan, A. and Karaca, M.Y (2012) Determination of tetracycline residues in chicken meat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Food. Addit. Contam Part. B Surveill, 5(1): 45-9. [Crossref] [PubMed]
4. Ezenduka, E.V., Oboegbulem, S.I., Nwanta, J.A. and Onunkwo, J. (2011) Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 43: 557-555. [Crossref] [PubMed]
5. Myllyniemi, A.L., Nuotio, L., Lindfors, E., Rannikko, R., Niemi, A., Backman, C.A. (2001) Microbial six-plate method for the identification of certain antibiotic groups in incurred kidney and muscle samples. Analyst, 126: 641-646. [Crossref] [PubMed]
6. Heitzman, RJ., editor. (1994) Veterinary drug residues. Residues in Food Producing Animals and their Products: Reference Materials and Methods. 2nd ed. Oxford: Commission of the European Communities, Blackwell Scientific Publications.
7. Mariel, G.P., Rapallini, M.L., Tina, Z., Elferink, J.W., Oostra-Van Dijk, S. and Alexander, J.W. (2010) Screening methods for detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals: Comparison of the EU-four plate method, the Nouws antibiotic test and the PremiR test (applied to muscle and kidney). Food Addit. Contam., 28(1): 26.
8. Heshmati, A. (2015) Impact of cooking procedures on antibacterial drug residues in foods: A review. J. Food Qual. Hazards Control, 2: 33-37.
9. Heshmati, A., Salaramoli, J., Kamkar, A., Hassan, J. and Jahed, G.H. (2014) Experimental study of the effects of cooking methods on tilmicosin residues in chicken. J. Vet. Res., 69: 283-290.
11. Hassani, M., Lazaro, R., Perez, C., Condon, S. and Pagan, R. (2008) Thermostability of oxytetracycline, tetracyclines, and doxycycline at ultrahigh temperatures. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56: 2676-2680. [Crossref] [PubMed]
12. Hsieh, M.K., Shyu, C.L., Liao, J.W., Franje, C.A., Huang, Y.J., Chang, S.K., Shi, P.Y. and Chou, C.C. (2011) Correlation analysis of heat stability of veterinary antibiotics by structural degradation, changes in antimicrobial activity and genotoxicity. Vet. Med., 56: 274-285.
13. Franje, C.A., Chang, S.K., Shyu, C.L., Davis, J.L., Lee, Y.W., Lee, R.J., Chang, C.C. and Chou, C.C. (2010) Differential heat stability of amphenicols characterized by structural degradation, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial activity. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 53: 869-877. [PubMed] [PubMed]
15. Papapanagiotou, E.P., Fletouris, D.J. and Psomas, E.I. (2004) Effect of various heat treatments and cold storage on sulphamethazine residues stability in incurred piglet muscle and cow milk samples. Anal. Chim. Acta., 529: 305-309. [Crossref]
16. Abou-Raya, S., Shalaby, A.R., Salama1, N.A., Emam, W.H. and Mehaya, F.M. (2013) Effect of ordinary cooking procedures on tetracycline residues in chicken meat. J. Food Drug Anal., 21: 80-86.
17. Rose, M.D., Bygrave, J., Farrington, W.H.H. and Shearer, G. (1996) The effect of cooking on veterinary drug residues in food: 4.Oxytetracycline. Food Addit. Contam., 13: 275-286. [Crossref] [PubMed]
18. Nonga, H.E., Mariki, M., Karimuribo, E.D. and Mdegela, R.H. (2009) Assessment of antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial residues in broiler chickens in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Pak. J. Nutr., 8: 203-207. [Crossref]
19. Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). (2011) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA. p18-20.
20. Javadi, A., Mirzaei, H. and Khatibi, S.A. (2009) Effect of roasting process on antibiotic residues in edible tissues of poultry by FPT plate. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 8: 2468-2472.
21. Van Hue, H., Li, M., Muhammad, A.K., Chun, B.L. and Hong, Z.G. (2013) Effect of cooking methods on tetracycline residues in pig meat. Afr. J Pharm. Pharm., 7: 1448-1454. [Crossref]22. Al-Ghamd, M.S., Al-Mustafa, Z.H., El-Morsy, F., Al-Faky, A., Haider, I. and Essa, H. (2000) Residues of tetracycline compounds in poultry products in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Public Health, 114: 300-304. [Crossref]