Article history: Received: 19-09-2017, Accepted: 10-01-2018, Published online: 14-02-2018
Corresponding author: Sanjolly Gupta
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Yusuf U, Kotwal SK, Gupta S, Ahmed T (2018) Identification and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from the milk and milk products in and around Jammu region, Veterinary World, 11(2): 186-191.
Aim: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence, identification, and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from 215 samples of different milk and milk products in and around Jammu region.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, 215 samples of milk, rasgulla, burfi, rasmalai, kalaari, paneer, ice cream, and pastry were collected and analyzed for the isolation of the B. cereus using PEMBA, and antibiogram pattern was observed for all the milk and milk products.
Results: B. cereus was detected in 61/215 samples with an overall prevalence of 28.37%. Biotyping revealed predominantly 5, 7, and 2 biotypes in raw milk. Burfi and ice cream revealed 2, 3, 5, and 7 biotypes. Rasgulla had 2, 3, and 5 biotypes; paneer and rasmalai had biotypes 2 and 5, while kalaari revealed biotype 5. Antibiogram pattern revealed that isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), intermediate to ampicillin (40.98%), tetracycline (31.14%), erythromycin (29.50%), and amoxicillin (26.22%), and high resistance against penicillin G (100%). Adulteration of starch was detected in 16.66 % raw milk samples. All starch positive samples were positive for B. cereus. However, 12 starch negative samples also yielded B. cereus.
Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that highest prevalence of B. cereus was found in ice cream. Several isolates of B. cereus showed toxigenic activity, so the presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products may be of public health hazard. The antibiogram pattern of B. cereus isolates showed sensitivity to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and resistance to penicillin-G and cephalexin. The presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products showed a strong association besides establishing the fact that starch adulteration can be indicative of the presence of B. cereus.
Keywords: Antibiogram, Bacillus cereus, milk, milk products, prevalence.
1. Jeßberger, N., Dietrich, R., Bock, S., Didier, A. and Martlbauer E. (2014) Bacillus cereus enterotoxins act as major virulence factors and exhibit distinct cytotoxicity to different human cell lines. Toxicon, 77: 49-57. [Crossref] [PubMed]
2. Li, F., Zuo, S., Yu, P., Zhou, B., Wang, L., Liu, C., Wei, H. and Xu, H. (2016) Distribution and expression of the enterotoxin genes of Bacillus cereus in food products from Jiangxi Province, China. Food Control, 67: 155-162. [Crossref]
3. Lucking, G., Stoeckel, M., Atamer, Z., Hinrichs, J. and Ehling-Schulz, M. (2013) Characterization of aerobic spore-forming bacteria associated with industrial dairy processing environments and product spoilage. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 166(2): 270-279. [Crossref] [PubMed]
4. Schlegelova, J., Brychta, J., Klimova, E., Napravnikova, E. and Babak, V. (2003) The prevalence of and resistance to antimicrobial agents of Bacillus cereus isolates from foodstuffs. Vet. Med. Czech Republic, 48: 331-338. [Crossref]
5. Turnbull, P.C.B., Sirianni, N.M., LeBorn, C.I., Samaan, M.N., Sutton, F.N., Reyes, A.E. and Peruski, L.F. (2004) MICs of selected antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus mycoides from range of clinical and environmental sources as determined by the Etest. J. Clin. Microbiol., 42: 3626-3634. [Crossref]
6. Whong, C.M.Z. and Kwaga, J.K.P. (2007) Antibiogram of Bacillus cereus isolates from some Nigerian foods. Niger. Food J., 25: 178-183.
7. Kursun, O., Guner, A. and Ozmen, G. (2011) Prevalence of Bacillus cereus in rabbit meat consumed in Burdur-Turkey, its enterotoxin producing ability and antibiotic susceptibility. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fakultesi Derg., 17: S31-S35.
8. Kumari, S. and Sarkar, P.K. (2016) Bacillus cereus hazard and control in industrial dairy processing environment. Food Control, 69: 20-29. [Crossref]
9. Kumari, S. and Sarkar, P.K. (2014b) Prevalence and characterization of Bacillus cereus group from various marketed dairy products in India. Dairy Sci. Technol., 94(5): 483-497. [Crossref]
10. Rhodehamel, E.J. and Harmon, S.M. (2001) Bacillus cereus. In: Jackson, G.J., Merker, R.I., Bandler, R., editors. Bacteriological Analytical Mannual, Centre for food safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S, Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD, USA. Available from: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~ebam-14.html. Last accessed on 21-07-2017.
11. Clause, D. and Berkeley, R.C.W. (1986) Genus Bacillus. In: Sneath, P.H.A., editor. Bergy's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology. Vol. 2, The Williams and Wilkins Co, Baltimore, Md. p1105-1139.
12. Jha, N.K. and Narayan, K.G. (1995) Biotyping of Bacillus cereus isolates. J. Food Sci. Technol., 32: 231-232.
13. Bauer, A.W., Kerby, W.M., Sherris, J.C. and Truck, M. (1966) Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disc method. Am. J. Pathol., 45: 493-496.
14. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). (2007) Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests. Vol. 27, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA.
15. Altaf, M.S., Hussain S.A., Ahmad, C.R., Willayat, M.M., Imtiyaz, A.H. and Bhat S. (2011) A study on the prevalence of Bacillus Cereus emetic strains in raw milk in and around Srinagar city of J&K. Biomed. Pharmacol. J., 4(1), 181-188. [Crossref]
16. Sharma, C.S., Sharma, D.K., Gill, J.P.S., Aulakh, R.S. and Sharma, J.K. (2003) Bacillus cereus from foods of animal origin in India and its public health significance. Acta Vet. Scand., 44: 118. [Crossref]
17. Hassan, G.M., Mal-Ashmawy, M.A., Meshref, A.M.S. and Afify, S.I. (2010) Studies on enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus in raw milk and some dairy products. J. Food Saf., 30: 569-583.
18. Lin, S., Scraft, H., Odumeru, J.A. and Griffths, M.W. (1998) Identification of contamination sources of Bacillus cereus in Pasteurized milk. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 43: 159-171. [Crossref]
19. TeGiffel, M.C., Beumer, R.R., Bonestroo, M.H. and Rombouts, F.M. (1996) Incidence and characterization of Bacillus cereus in two dairy processing plants. Netherl MiIk Dairy J., 50: 479-492.
20. Yadav, R. (1993) Biotyping and Serotyping of Bacillus cereus Isolated from Rice and Chowmein. Phd. Thesis Submitted to Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi (Bihar).
21. Willayat, M.M. (1997), Studies on Bacillus Cereus Enterotoxins and the Pathogenesis". Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Bihar.
22. Javed, A.H. (2001) Studies on Prevalence of Heat Stable Strains of Bacillus cereus in Milk and Rice". M.V.Sc Thesis Submitted to SKUAST-Kashmir, J & K.
23. Hafeez, Y., Iqbal, A. and Ahmad, M. (2012) Biotyping of Bacillus cereus from the street vended foods in Srinagar area of Kashmir, India. Vet. World, 5(10): 590-593. [Crossref]24. Umar, A.S., Yerima, M.B. and Uzal, U. (2006) Antimicrobial sensitivities of Bacillus cereus isolated from food samples sold in Bauchi metropolis toselected antibiotics. Niger. J. Microbiol., 20(1): 655-661.