Open Access
Research (Published online: 18-02-2018)
19. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics and prilled fat supplementation on immune genes expression and lymphocyte proliferation of transition stage Karan Fries cows
Meeti Punetha, A. K. Roy, H. M. Ajithakumar, Irshad Ahmed Para, Deepanshu Gupta, Mahendra Singh and Jaya Bharati
Veterinary World, 11(2): 209-214

Meeti Punetha: Division of Animal Physiology, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India.
A. K. Roy: Division of Animal Physiology, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India.
H. M. Ajithakumar: Division of Animal Physiology, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India.
Irshad Ahmed Para: Division of Animal Physiology, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India.
Deepanshu Gupta: Division of Animal Physiology, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India.
Mahendra Singh: Division of Animal Physiology, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India.
Jaya Bharati: Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izzatnagar - 243 122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.209-214

Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]

Article history: Received: 26-10-2017, Accepted: 16-01-2018, Published online: 18-02-2018

Corresponding author: Mahendra Singh


Citation: Punetha M, Roy AK, Ajithakumar HM, Para IA, Gupta D, Singh M, Bharati J (2018) Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics and prilled fat supplementation on immune genes expression and lymphocyte proliferation of transition stage Karan Fries cows, Veterinary World, 11(2): 209-214.

Background and Aim: Probiotics are the living microorganism which when administered improves the digestion and health of the animal. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) improves the humoral and innate immunity of the animal. Prilled fat is a hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride which has been reported to promote the release of cytokines from macrophages. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic and prilled fat during transition stage in Karan Fries (KF) cows.

Materials and Methods: A total of 12 KF cows at 21 days prepartum were selected and divided into two groups of six animals each. The control group was fed as per the standard feeding practices and the supplemented group cows were supplemented daily with prilled fat at 100 g/cow, SC at 25 g/cow, and sweetener at 1 g/cow in addition to the standard feeding practices from -30 days of prepartum to 21 days of lactation. The sweetener was added to improve the palatability of the feed. The natural sweetener of an African plant leave had 105 times more sweetness than glucose with good aroma. The dry matter intake of the animal was recorded. Plasma samples were collected weekly from all cows for the analysis of blood metabolite beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA). Lymphocytes were isolated from the blood for studying the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and for estimating lymphocyte proliferation index (LPI).

Results: The upregulated IL-1β and TNF-α around calving might be possibly associated to the metabolic changes occurring during the transition period and suggest a higher degree of inflammation around parturition. High concentrations of BHBA caused increased expression and synthesis of the pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-1β in supplemented group in primary calf hepatocytes. The LPI was higher in supplemented group as compared to control which suggests a stimulatory effect of unsaturated fatty acids on mitogen-stimulated T-cell proliferation.

Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of probiotics, prilled fat, and sweetener alleviated negative energy balance by stimulating feed intake and modulating hepatic lipid metabolism; and both of these additives improved the postpartum health (antioxidant status and immune function) of transition dairy cows.

Keywords: beta-hydroxybutyric acid, crossbred cows, dry matter intake, interleukin-1β, lymphocyte proliferation index, prilled fat, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, tumor necrosis factor alpha.


1. Kenney, N. (2013) Impact of Direct-fed Microbials on Nutrient Utilization in Beef Cattle. MSc thesis, University of Kentucky,UKnowledge, UK.

2. Wang, D., Zhou, L., Zhou, H., Hou, G. and Shi, L. (2017) Effects of dietary a-lipoic acid on carcass characteristics, antioxidant capability and meat quality in Hainan black goats. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 16(1): 61-67. [Crossref]

3. Gitto, E., Reiter, R.J., Karbownik, M., Tan, D.X., Gitto, P., Barberi, S. and Barberi, I. (2002) Causes of oxidative stress in the pre-and perinatal period. Biol. Neonate, 81(3) : 146-157. [Crossref] [PubMed]

4. Mateus, L., Costa, L., Bernardo, F. and Robalo, S.J. (2002) Influence of puerperal uterine infection on uterine involution and postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 37(1) : 31-5. [Crossref]

5. Calder, P.C., Bond, J.A., Bevan, S.J., Hunt, S.V. and Newsholme, E.A. (1991) Effects of fatty acid on proliferation on concanavalin - A stimulated rat lymph node lymphocytes. Int. J. Biochem., 23(5-6) : 579-588. [Crossref]

6. Kogan, G., Stasko, A., Bauerova, K., Polovka, M., Soltes, L., Brezova, V., Navarova, J. and Mihalova, D. (2005) Antioxidant properties of yeast (1→3)-β-D-glucan studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and its activity in the adjuvant arthritis. Carbohydr. Polym, 61(1) : 18-28. [Crossref]

7. Gao, J., Zhang, H.J., Yu, S.H., Wu, S.G., Yoon, I., Quigley, J., Gao, Y.P. and Qi, G.H. (2008) Effects of yeast culture in broiler diets on performance and immunomodulatory functions. Poultry Sci, 87(7) : 1377-1384. [Crossref] [PubMed]

8. Mousa, K.M., El-Malky, O.M., Komonna, O.F. and Rashwan, S.E. (2012) Effect of some yeast and minerals on the productive and reproductive performance in ruminants. J. Am. Sci., 8(2): 291-303.

9. Patterson, R., Nerren, J., Kogut, M., Court, P., Villarreal-Ramos, B., Seyfert, H.M., Dalby, P. and Werling, D. (2011) Yeast-surface expressed BVDV E2 protein induces a Th1/Th2 response in naive T cells. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 1(1): 107-111.

10. Tewary, A. and Patra, B.C. (2011) Oral administration of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) acts as a growth promoter and immunomodulator in Labeo rohita (Ham.). J Aquac. Res. Dev., 2(1): 1-7. [Crossref]

11. Laxmi, N.A., Sehgal, J.P. and Kumar, B.S.B. (2016) Supplementation of fermented yeast culture augments the growth and reduces the age at puberty in male Murrah buffalo calves. Buffalo Bull., 35(2): 179-189.

12. Mahendra, S., Sehgal, J.P., Roy, A.K., Pandita, S. and Rajesh, G. (2014) Effect of prill fat supplementation on hormones, milk production and energy metabolites during mid-lactation in crossbred cows. Vet. World, 7(6): 384-388. [Crossref]

13. Majtan, J., Kogan, G., Kovacova, E., Bilikova, K. and Simuth, J. (2005) Stimulation of TNF-alpha release by fungal cell wall polysaccharides. Z. Naturforschung C, 60(11-12) : 921-926. [Crossref] [PubMed]

14. Riss, T.L., Moravec, R.A., Niles, A.L., Duellman, S., Benink, H.A., Worzella, T.J., Minor, L. (2016) Cell Viability Assays. Source Assay Guidance Manual. Eli Lilly & Company, Bethesda (MD).

15. Roche, J.R., Bell, A.W., Overton, T.R. and Loor, J.J. (2013) Nutritional management of the transition cow in the 21st century?-A paradigm shift in thinking. Anim. Prod. Sci., 53(9) : 1000-1023. [Crossref]

16. Alugongo, G.M., Xiao, J., Wu, Z., Li, S., Wang, Y. and Cao, Z. (2017) Utilization of yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae origin in artificially raised calves. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol., 8(1): 34. [Crossref]

17. Mostafa, T.H., Elsayed, F.A., Ahmed, M.A. and Elkholany, M.A. (2014) Effect of using some feed additives (tw-probiotics) in dairy cow rations on production and reproductive performance. Egyptian J. Anim. Prod., 51(1): 1-11.

18. Sharma, S., Singh, M., Roy, A.K. and Thakur, S. (2016) Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Vet. World, 9(3): 256. [Crossref]

19. Kawas, J.R., Garcia-Castillo, R., Fimbres-Durazo, H., Garza-Cazares, F., Hernandez-Vidal, J.F.G., Olivares-Saenz, E. and Lu, C.D. (2007) Effects of sodium bicarbonate and yeast on nutrient intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation of light-weight lambs fed finishing diets. Small Rum. Res., 67(2): 149-156. [Crossref]

20. Chaucheyras-Durand, F., Walker, N.D. and Bach, A. (2008) Effects of active dry yeasts on the rumen microbial ecosystem: Past, present and future. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 145(1): 5-26. [Crossref]

21. Roberts, T., Chapinal, N., LeBlanc, S.J., Kelton, D.F., Dubuc, J. and Duffield, T.F. (2012) Metabolic parameters in transition cows as indicators for early-lactation culling risk. J. Dairy Sci., 95(6): 3057-3063. [Crossref] [PubMed]

22. Al Ibrahim, R.M., Whelan, S.J., Pierce, K.M., Campion, D.P., Gath, V.P. and Mulligan, F.J. (2013) Effect of timing of post-partum introduction to pasture and supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production, metabolic status, energy balance and some reproductive parameters in early lactation dairy cows. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 97(s1) : 105-114. [Crossref] [PubMed]

23. Al Ibrahim, R.M., Gath, V.P., Campion, D.P., McCarney, C., Duffy, P. and Mulligan, F.J. (2012) The effect of abrupt or gradual introduction to pasture after calving and supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Strain 1026) on ruminal pH and fermentation in early lactation dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 178(1): 40-47. [Crossref]

24. Roche, J.R., Kolver, E.S. and Kay, J.K. (2005) Influence of precalving feed allowance on periparturient metabolic and hormonal responses and milk production in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 88(2) : 677-689. [Crossref]

25. Ramadori, G. and Armbrust, T. (2001) Cytokines in the liver. Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 13(7) : 777-784. [Crossref]

26. Janeway, C.A. Jr., Travers, P., Walport, M. and Shlomchik, M.J. (2001) Infectious agents and how they cause disease; Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. Garland Publishing, New York. p382-388.

27. Shi, X., Li, X., Li, D., Li, Y., Song, Y., Deng, Q., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., Ding, H., Yin, L., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Li, X. and Liu, G. (2014) Signaling pathway to promote the expression of pro-inflammatory factors in calf hepatocytes. Cell Physiol. Biochem., 33(4) : 920-932. [Crossref] [PubMed]

28. Chou, W.K., Park, J., Carey, J.B., McIntyre, D.R. and Berghman, L.R. (2017) Immunomodulatory effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product supplementation on immune gene expression and lymphocyte distribution in immune organs in broilers. Front. Vet. Sci., 4(4): 37. [Crossref]

29. Fleischer, L.G., Gerber, G., Liezenga, R.W., Lippert, E., Scholl, M.A. and Westphal, G. (2000) Blood cells and plasma proteins of chickens fed a diet supplemented with 1,3/1,6-beta-D-glucan and enrofloxacin. Archiv Fur Tiernahrung, 53(1): 59-73. [Crossref]

30. Brown, G.D. and Gordon, S. (2003) Fungal beta-glucans and mammalian immunity. Immunity, 19(3): 311-315. [Crossref]