Article history: Received: 12-07-2017, Accepted: 11-12-2017, Published online: 08-02-2018
Corresponding author: Michelo Syakalima
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Syakalima M, Simuunza M, Zulu VC (2018) Ethnoveterinary treatments for common cattle diseases in four districts of the Southern Province, Zambia, Veterinary World, 11(2): 141-145.
Aim: Ethnoveterinary knowledge has rarely been recorded, and no or limited effort has been made to exploit this knowledge despite its widespread use in Zambia. This study documented the types of plants used to treat important animal diseases in rural Zambia as a way of initiating their sustained documentation and scientific validation.
Materials and Methods: The study was done in selected districts of the Southern Zambia, Africa. The research was a participatory epidemiological study conducted in two phases. The first phase was a pre-study exploratory rapid rural appraisal conducted to familiarize the researchers with the study areas, and the second phase was a participatory rural appraisal to help gather the data. The frequency index was used to rank the commonly mentioned treatments.
Results: A number of diseases and traditional treatments were listed with the help of local veterinarians. Diseases included: Corridor disease (Theileriosis), foot and mouth disease, blackleg, bloody diarrhea, lumpy skin disease, fainting, mange, blindness, coughing, bloat, worms, cobra snakebite, hemorrhagic septicemia, and transmissible venereal tumors. The plant preparations were in most diseases given to the livestock orally (as a drench). Leaves, barks, and roots were generally used depending on the plant type.
Conclusion: Ethnoveterinary medicine is still widespread among the rural farmers in the province and in Zambia in general. Some medicines are commonly used across diseases probably because they have a wide spectrum of action. These medicines should, therefore, be validated for use in conventional livestock healthcare systems in the country to reduce the cost of treatments.
Keywords: cattle, ethnomedicines, traditional farmers, Zambia.
1. ITDG and IIRR. (1996) Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Kenya: A Field Manual of Traditional Animal Health Care Practices. Intermediate Technology Development Group and International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Nairobi, Kenya. p226.
2. McCorkle, C.M. (1986) An introduction to ethnoveterinary research and development. J. Ethnobiol., 6: 129-149.
3. Gakuubi, M.M. and Wanzala, W. (2012) A survey of plants and plant products traditionally used in livestock health management in Buuri district, Meru County, Kenya. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 8(39): 1-19. [Crossref]
4. Giday, M. and Teklehaymanot, T. (2013) Ethnobotanical study of plants used in management of livestock health problems by Afar people of Ada'ar District, Afar regional state, Ethiopia. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 9(8): 1-10. [Crossref]
5. Nabukenya, I., Rubaire-Akiiki, C., Olila, D., Ikwap, K., and Hoglund, J. (2014) Ethnopharmacological practices by livestock farmers in Uganda: Survey experiences from Mpigi and Gulu districts. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 10(9). Available from: http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/10/1/9.. Accessed on 10-11-2017. [Crossref]
6. Mathias, E. (2001) Introducing ethnoveterinary medicine. Available from: http://www.ethnovetweb.com/docs/whatisevm.pdf. Accessed on 10-11-2013.
7. Murtem, G. and Chaudhry, P. (2016) An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the tribes in upper Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Am. J. Ethnomed., 3(3): 35-49.
8. Kakoma, C. (1990) A Note on the Impact of Animal Traction in Zambia. Animal Traction for Agricultural Development. Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the West Africa Animal Traction Network Held 7-12 July 1988, Saly, Senegal. Available from: https://www.ilri.org/InfoServ/Webpub/fulldocs/X5455b/x5455b29.htm. Accessed on 10-11-2017.
9. Alhaji, N.B. and Babalobi, O.O. (2015) Participatory epidemiology of ethnoveterinary practices Fulani pastoralists used to manage contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and other cattle ailments in Niger state, Nigeria. J. Vet. Med., 2015: 460408. [Crossref]
10. Maroyi, A. (2012) Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe. Afr. J. Tradit. Complem. Alt. Med., 9(3): 315-322. [Crossref]
11. Wanzala, W., Zessinb, K.H., Kyule, N.M., Baumann, M.P.O., Mathias, E. and Hassanali, A. (2005) Ethnoveterinary medicine: A critical review of its evolution, perception, understanding and the way forward. LRRD, 17: 11.
12. Tolossa, K., Debela, E., Athanasiadou, S., Tolera, A., Ganga, G. and Houdijk, J.G.M. (2013) Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human and livestock ailments by traditional healers in South Omo, Southern Ethiopia. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 9(32). Available from: http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/9/1/32. Accessed on 10-11-2017. [Crossref]
13. Tumpa, S.I., Hossain, M.D.I. and Ishika, T. (2014) Ethnomedicinal uses of herbs by indigenous medicine practitioners of Jhenaidah district, Bangladesh. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 3(2): 23-33.
14. Luseba, D. and Tshisikhawe, M.P. (2013) Medicinal plants used in the treatment of livestock diseases in Vhembe region, Limpopo province, South Africa. J. Med. Plant Res., 7(10): 593-601.
15. Mahwasane, S.T., Middleton, L. and Boaduo, L. (2013) An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the traditional healers of Lwamondo area, Limpopo province, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot., 88: 69-75. [Crossref]
16. Mongalo, N.I. and Mafoko, B.J. (2013) Cassia abbreviata Oliv. A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, toxicology, phytochemistry, possible propagation techniques and pharmacology. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 7(45): 2901-2906. [Crossref]
17. Adinortey, M.B., Galyuon, I.K. and Asamoah, N.O. (2013) Trema orientalis Linn. blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses. Pharmacogn. Rev., 7(13): 67-72. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]18. Warrell, D.A. (1993) Venomous bites and stings in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med. J., 14(3): 196-220.