Article history: Received: 04-09-2017, Accepted: 15-12-2017, Published online: 27-01-2018
Corresponding author: Nurhusien Yimer
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Albishtue AA, Yimer N, Zakaria MZA, Haron AW, Yusoff R, Assi MA, Almhanawi BH (2018) Edible bird's nest impact on rats' uterine histomorphology, expressions of genes of growth factors and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and oxidative stress level, Veterinary World, 11(1): 71-79.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) supplementation on the uteri of rats based on analyses of the morphological and histomorphometric changes, and expressions of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (REGF) genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and steroid receptors.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were equally distributed into the following four groups: G1 (control), G2, G3, and G4 represented the groups treated with EBN at graded concentrations of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg body weight (BW) per day for 8 weeks, respectively. During the experimental period, the BW of each rat was recorded weekly. At the proestrus stage of estrous cycle, blood samples were collected from the hearts of anesthetized rats that were later sacrificed. The uteri were removed for histological and immunohistochemical analyses.
Results: The EBN-treated groups showed an increase in the weights and lengths of uteri as compared to the control. Results showed that relative to G1 and G2, G3 and G4 exhibited proliferation in their uterine luminal and glandular epithelia and uterine glands, and up-regulated expressions of EGF, REGF, VEGF, PCNA, and progesterone receptor, and estrogen receptor in their uteri. The EBN increased the antioxidant (AO) and total AO capacities and reduced the oxidative stress (OS) levels in non-pregnant rats.
Conclusion: Findings of this study revealed that EBN promotes proliferation of the uterine structures as evidenced by the upregulation of the expressions of steroid receptors,EGF, REGF, VEGF, and PCNA in the uterus and increased in the plasma concentrations of AO and reduced levels of OS.
Keywords: antioxidant, edible bird's nest, growth factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, uterus.
1. Guzeloglu-Kayisli, O., Kayisli, U.M. and Taylor, H.S. (2009) The role of growth factors and cytokines during implantation: Endocrine and paracrine interactions. Semin. Reprod. Med., 27(1): 62-79. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
3. Bergemann, N., Mundt, C., Parzer, P., Jannakos, I., Nagl, I., Salbach, B., Klinga, K., Runnebaum, B. and Resch, F. (2005) Plasma concentrations of estradiol in women suffering from schizophrenia treated with conventional versus atypical antipsychotics. Schizophr. Res., 73(2-3): 357-366. [Crossref] [PubMed]
4. Ismail, M., Hou, Z.P., Stanslas, J., Iman, M.U., Zhang, Y.D., Ideris, A. and Mahmud, R. (2014) Edible Bird's Nest Pretreatment Prevents Ovariectomy Induced Cognitive Aging in Morris Water Maze. Proceedings of the Edible Bird Nest Industry Conference, November 2014. Putrajaya, Malaysia. p25-26.
5. Matsukawa, N., Matsumoto, M., Bukawa, W., Chiji, H., Nakayama, K., Hara, H. and Tsukahara, T. (2011) Improvement of bone strength and dermal thickness due to dietary edible bird's nest extract in ovariectomized rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 75(3): 590-592. [Crossref] [PubMed]
6. Thavamanithevi, S., Sarifah, R., Lim, C.G., Theanmalar, M., Aidawati, M.S., Devi, M.D. and Saleha, AA. (2014) Characterization and Standardization of Edible Birds Nest (EBN)-Determination of Sialic Acid. Proceedings of the Edible Bird Nest Industry Conference. November 2014, Putrajaya. p25-26.
7. Kong, Y.C., Keung, W.M., Yip, T.T., Ko, K.M., Tsao, S.W. and Ng, M.H. (1987) Evidence that epidermal growth factor is present in swiftlet's (Collocalia) nest. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 87B(2): 221-226. [Crossref]
8. Ng, M.H., Chan, K.H. and Kong, Y.C. (1986) Potentiation of mitogenic response by extracts of the swiftlet's (Collocalia) nest. Biochem. Int., 13(3): 521-531. [PubMed]
9. Kong, Y.C., Tsao, S.W., Song, M.E., Ng, M.H. and Zhefu, L. (1989) Potentiation of mitogenic response by extracts of the swiftlet's (Apus) nest collected fuuuj7rom Huai-Ji. Acta Zoolog. Sin., 35(4): 429-435.
10. Gheri, G., Vichi, D., Thyrion, G.D., Bonaccini, L., Vannelli, G.B., Marini, M. and Sgambati, E. (2009) Sialic acid in human testis and changes with aging. Reprod. Fertil. Dev., 21(5): 625-633. [Crossref] [PubMed]
11. Sen, S., Chowdhury, G. and Chowdhury, M. (2001), Sialic acid binding protein of human endometrium: Its regulation by steroids. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 221(1-2): 17-23. [Crossref]
12. Pallares, P. and Gonzalez-Bulnes, A. (2009) A new method for induction and synchronization of oestrus and fertile ovulations in mice by using exogenous hormones. Lab. Anim., 43: 295-299. [Crossref] [PubMed]
13. Muhammad, S.I., Ismail, M., Mahmud, R.B., Salisu. A.M. and Zakaria, Z.A. (2013) Germinated brown rice and its bioactive modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomies rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes. BMC Complement. Altern Med., 13: 198. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
14. Panzan, M.Q., Mattar, R., Maganhin, C.C., dos Santos, S.R., Rossi, A.G.Z., da Motta, E.L.A., Baracat, E.C. and Soares, J.M. Jr. (2013) Evaluation of FAS and caspase-3 in the endometrial tissue of patients with idiopathic infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol., 167(1): 47-52. [Crossref] [PubMed]
15. Schmidt, C.M., Blount, J.D. and Bennett, N.C. (2014) Reproduction is associated with a tissue-dependent reduction of oxidative stress in eusocial female damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis). PLoS One, 9(7): e103286. [Crossref]
16. Yida, Z., Imam, M.U., Ismail, M., Hou, Z., Abdullah, M.A., Ideris, A. and Ismail, N. (2015) Edible bird's nest attenuates high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and inflammation via regulation of hepatic antioxidant and inflammatory genes. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 15(1): 310. [Crossref]
17. Zucchetto, A., Serraino, D., Polesel, J., Negri, E., De Paoli, A., Dal Maso, L., Montella, M., La Vecchia, C. and Franceschi, S. (2009) Hormone-related factors and gynecological conditions in relation to endometrial cancer risk. Eur. J. Cancer Prev., 18(4): 316-321. [Crossref]
18. Gray, C., Burghardt, R., Johnson, G., Bazer, F. and Spencer, T. (2002) Evidence that absence of endometrial gland secretions in uterine gland knockout ewes compromises conceptus survival and elongation. Reproduction, 124: 289-300. [Crossref] [PubMed]
19. Ghassem, M., Arihara, K., Mohammadi, S., Sani, N.A. and Babji, A.S. (2017) Identification of two novel antioxidant peptides from edible bird's nest (Aerodramus fuciphagus) protein hydrolysates. Food Funct., 8(5): 2046-2052. [Crossref] [PubMed]
20. Hirano, T., Ishihara, K. and Hibi, M. (2000) Roles of STAT3 in mediating the cell growth, differentiation and survival signals relayed through the IL-6 family of cytokine receptors. Oncogene, 19: 2548. [Crossref] [PubMed]
21. Alan, E., Liman, N. and Sagsoz, H. (2015) The profile of the epidermal growth factor system in rat endometrium during postpartum involution period. Vet. Res. Commun., 39: 115-135. [Crossref] [PubMed]
22. Roh, K.B., Lee, J., Kim, Y.S., Park, J., Kim, J.H., Lee, J. and Park, D. (2011) Mechanisms of edible bird's nest extract-induced proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells. Evid. Based Complement. Altern Med., 2012: 797520. [PubMed] [PMC]
23. Christenson, L.K. and Stouffer, R.L. (1997) Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production by macaque granulosa cells from pre-and periovulatory follicles 1. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 82(7): 2135-2142. [Crossref]
24. Anasti, J., Kalantaridou, S., Kimzey, L., George, M. and Nelson, L. (1998) Human follicle fluid vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations are correlated with luteinization in spontaneously developing follicles. Human Reprod., 13: 1144-1147. [Crossref] [PubMed]
25. Dickson, S.E. and Fraser, H.M. (2000) Inhibition of early luteal angiogenesis by gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist treatment in the primate. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 85(6): 2339-2344. [Crossref] [PubMed]
26. Kakuta, H., Tanaka, M., Chambon, P., Watanabe, H., Iguchi, T. and Sato, T. (2012) Involvement of gonadotropins in the induction of hypertrophy-hyperplasia in the interstitial tissues of ovaries in neonatally diethylstilbestrol-treated mice. Reprod. Toxicol., 33(1): 35-44. [Crossref] [PubMed]27. Zhiping, H., Imam, M.U., Ismail, M., Ismail, N., Yida, Z., Ideris, A., Sarega, N. and Mahmud, R. (2015) Effects of edible bird's nest on hippocampal and cortical neurodegeneration in ovariectomized rats. Food Funct. 6: 1701-1711. [Crossref] [PubMed]