Article history: Received: 15-02-2018, Accepted: 05-06-2018, Published online: 27-07-2018
Corresponding author: Aarohi Kulkarni
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Aphale D, Kulkarni A (2018) Modifications and optimization of manual methods for polymerase chain reaction and 16S rRNA gene sequencing quality community DNA extraction from goat rumen digesta, Veterinary World, 11(7): 990-1000.
Background and Aim: A critical prerequisite for studying rumen microbial community by high throughput molecular biology methods is good quality community DNA. Current methods of extraction use kits designed for samples from the different origin for rumen. This puts stress on the development of a relevant manual method for DNA extraction. The objective of this study was to modify the existing methods of community DNA extraction and thereby systematic comparison of their efficiency based on DNA yield, purity, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and identification to determine the optimal DNA extraction methods whose DNA products reflect targeted bacterial communities special to rumen.
Materials and Methods: Enzymatic method, Chemical method, Enzymatic + Chemical method, and Enzymatic + Chemical + Physical method were modified toward evaluation of community DNA extraction from solid, squeezed, and liquid fractions of goat rumen digesta. Each method was assessed critically for nucleic acid yield and its quality. The methods resulting in high nucleic acid yield, optimal purity ratios with intact band on agarose gel electrophoresis were optimized further. Optimized methods were studied using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal bacterial primers and 16S rRNA primers of targeted rumen bacteria. Methods denoting the presence of targeted rumen bacteria were assessed further with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and identification studies. It led toward methods efficacy estimation for molecular biology applications. Effect of rumen sample preservation on community DNA extraction was also studied. Their mean standard deviation values were calculated to understand sampling criticality.
Results: Modified Chemical method (Cetrimonium bromide) and Enzymatic+Chemical+Physical (ECP) method (Lysozyme- Cetrimonium bromide-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-freeze-thaw) could extract 835 ng/μl and 161 ng/μl community DNA from 1.5 g solid and 2 ml squeezed rumen digesta with purity ratios of 1.8 (A260nm/A280nm) and 2.3 (A260nm/A230nm) respectively. Comparative analysis showed the better efficiency of ECP method and chemical method toward freshly squeezed rumen digesta and solid rumen digesta. However, sample preservation at -80°C for 1.5 months drastically affected the yield and purity ratios of community DNA. New protocol revealed targeted microbial community having Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria such as Prevotella ruminicola, Streptococcus lutetiensis, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes, and Selenomonas ruminantium.
Conclusion: To date, this is the first report of modified methods wherein least chemicals and steps lead toward PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing quality community DNA extraction from goat rumen digesta. Detection of targeted rumen bacteria in solid and squeezed rumen digesta proves their strongest association with rumen fiber mat. It also marks the presence of distinct microbial communities in solid and squeezed rumen fractions that in turn differs the performance of each different method employed and yield of nucleic acid obtained. It also leaves a possibility of the presence of complex microbial consortia in squeezed rumen digesta whose DNA extraction methods need more attention. Finally, manual protocols of community DNA extraction may vary in different ruminant which suggests undertaking rigorous research in their establishment.
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene sequencing, community DNA extraction, goat, polymerase chain reaction, rumen digesta.
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