Article history: Received: 02-02-2018, Accepted: 21-05-2018, Published online: 08-07-2018
Corresponding author: Aboh Iku Kisani
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Kisani AI, Tughgba T, Elsa AT (2018) Effects of various surgical procedures on biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs and their clinical implications, Veterinary World, 11(7): 909-914.
Aim: The importance of physical and psychological stress caused by pain during surgery cannot be overemphasized. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ovariohysterectomy (OVH), gastrotomy (GST), and intestinal resection and anastomosis (IRA) on biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs anesthetized with the xylazine-propofol combination.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 dogs were randomly divided into three groups of four each. The animals were treated with xylazine and propofol anesthetics for OVH, GST, and IRA in Groups 1-3, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 0 h, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h postsurgery for determination of cortisol (CORT), glucose (GLU), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GL), and ALB/GL ratio.
Results: There were significant increases (p<0.05) in mean CORT concentrations 2 h postsurgery in the three groups and at 24 h in Group 3 and 96 h in Groups 1 and 3, respectively. GLU concentrations increased significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups at 2 h postsurgery. The mean protein concentrations in Groups 2 and 3 decreased significantly (p<0.05) at 2h and 24 h and 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, and 144 h in Group 3, respectively. There was significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean ALB concentrations at 2 h, 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, and 144 h postsurgery. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean GL concentrations in Group 3 at 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 144 h. All other parameters were not significantly different (p>0.05) in comparison with the control.
Conclusion: Xylazine-propofol combination could decrease humoral immune status and increase serum GLU level invariably portending a high risk of diabetes in the vulnerable dogs.
Keywords: anesthesia, cortisol, stress response, surgery.
1. Saganuwan, S.A., Elsa, A.T. and Muhammed, B.Y. (2005) Effects of thiopentone on the kinetics of sulphadimidine in Nigerian mongrel dogs. J. Med. Pharm. Sci., 1(1): 28-31.
2. Saganuwan, S.A. (2008) Antagonistic effects of ceftriaxone and sulphadimidine on ketamine and thiopentone anaesthetics in Nigerian local dogs. Anim. Res. Int., 5(2): 883-887.
3. Fazio, E., Medica, P., Cravana, C., Pupillo, A. and Ferlazzo, A. (2015) Effects of ovariohysterectomy in dogs and cats on adrenocortical, haematological and behavioural parameters. Acta Sci. Vet., 43: 1339.
4. Srithunyarat, T., Hoglund, O.V., Hagman, R., Olsson, U., Stridsberg, M., Lagerstedt, A. and Pettersson, A. (2016) Catestatin, vasostatin, cortisol, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, scores of the short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale and visual analog scale for stress and pain behavior in dogs before and after ovariohysterectomy. BMC Res. Notes, 9: 381. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
5. Nenadovic, K., Vucinic, M., Radenkovic-Damnjanovic, B., Jankovic, L., Teodorovic, R., Voslarova, E. and Becskei, Z. (2017) Cortisol concentration, pain and sedation scale in free-roaming dogs treated with carprofen after ovariohysterectomy. Vet. World, 10(8): 888-894. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
6. Siracusa, C., Manteca, X., Ceron, J., Martinez-Subiela, S., Cuenca, R., Lavin, S., Garcia, F. and Pastor, J. (2008) Perioperative stress response in dogs undergoing elective surgery: Variations in behavioural, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase responses. Anim. Welf., 17: 259-273.
7. Weledji, E.P. (2014) Cytokines and postoperative hyperglycaemia: From claude bernard to enhanced recovery after surgery. Int. J. Surg. Res., 3(1): 1-6.
8. Carey, D.P., Manas, K., Delicata, R.J. and Mahadevan, A. (1999) Response to surgical trauma. In: Monson, J., Duthie, G., O'Malley, K., editor. Surgical Emergencies. Blackwell Publishers, USA. p25-36.
9. Moberg, G.P. and Mench, J.A. (2000) The Biology of Animal Stress: Basic Principles and Implications for Animal Welfare. CABI Publ., Wallingford, New York. [Crossref]
10. Hekman, J.P., Karas, A.Z. and Sharp, C.R. (2014) Psychogenic stress in hospitalized dogs: Cross-species comparisons, implications for health care, and the challenges of evaluation. Animals, 4(2): 331-347. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
11. Paola, A., Carlo, L., Cinzia, D.R., Valter, P., Pierluigi, N. and Liliana, S. (2015) Stress response to surgery, anesthetics role and impact on cognition. J. Anesth. Clin. Res., 6: 539.
13. Soto, G., Pignolo, F., Calero, F., Saucina, F., Lainatti, L., Molinari, S. and Harvey, G. (2017) Evaluation of stress response and apoptosis on leucocytes in TIVA versus balanced anesthesia. Open J. Apoptosis, 6: 1-16. [Crossref]
15. Scholl, R., Bekker, A. and Babu, R. (2012) Neuroendocrine and immune response to surgery. Internet J. Anesthesiol., 30: 3.
16. Simsek, T., Simsek, H.U. and Canturk, N. (2014) Response to trauma and metabolic changes: Posttraumatic metabolism, Ulusal Cer Derg., 30: 153-159.
17. Saidu, A.M., Bokko, P.B., Mohammed, A., Bukbuk D.N. and Igwenagu, E. (2016) Serum cortisol of Sahel goats following rumenotomy with assorted anaesthetics and sutures. Int. J. Vet. Sci. Med., 4: 23-26. [Crossref]
19. Giannoudis, P., Dinopoulos, H., Chalidis, B. and Hall, G. (2006) Surgical stress response. Injury Int. J. Care Injured., 37S: S3-S9. [Crossref]
20. Marana, E., Scambia, G., Maussier, M.L., Parpaglioni, R., Ferrandina, G., Meo, F., Sciarra, M. and Marana, R. (2003) Neuroendocrine stress response in patients undergoing benign ovarian cyst surgery by laparoscopy, minilaparotomy, and laparotomy. J. Am. Assoc. Gynecol. Laparosc., 10(2): 159-165. [Crossref]
22. Horta, R.S., Figueiredo, M.S., Lavalle, G.E., Costa, M.P., Cunha, R.M. and Araujo, R.B. (2015) Surgical stress and postoperative complications related to regional and radical mastectomy in dogs. Acta. Vet. Scand., 57: 34. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
23. Yuki, K., Matsunami, E., Tazawa, K. and Wang, W. (2017) pediatric perioperative stress responses and anesthesia. Transl Perioper Pain., 2(1): 1-12.
24. Sapolsky, R.M., Romero, L.M. and Munck, A.U. (2000) How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocr Rev., 21(1): 55-89. [Crossref]
25. Brunicardi, F.C. (2010) Schwartz's Principles of Surgery. 9th ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., USA. p1866.
26. Daian, M.R., Petroianu, A. and Alberti, L.R. (2016) Current knowledge on psychic stress in surgical procedures. Peertechz J. Biol. Res. Dev., 1: 7-13. [Crossref]
27. Mathews, K.A. (2000) Pain assessment and general approach to management. Vet. Clin. Am. Small Anim. Pract., 30(4): 729-755. [Crossref]
28. Epstein, M., Rodan, I., Griffenhagen, G., Kadrlik, J., Petty, M., Robertson, S. and Simpson, W. (2015) AAHA/AAFP pain management guidelines for dogs and cats. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc., 51(2): 67-84. [Crossref] [PubMed]
29. Vaisanen, M.A.M., Valros, A.E., Hakaoja, E., Raekallio, M.R. and Vainio, O.M. (2005) Pre-operative stress in dogs - A preliminary investigation of behavior and heart rate variability in healthy hospitalized dogs. Vet. Anaesth. Analg., 32: 158-167. [Crossref] [PubMed]
30. Hogue C.W.Jr., Bowdle, T.A., O'Leary, C., Duncalf, D., Miguel, R., Pitts, M., Streisand, J., Kirvassilis, G., Jamerson, B., McNeal, S., McNeal, S. and Batenhorst, R. (1996) A multicenter evaluation of total intravenous anesthesia with remifentanil and propofol for elective inpatient surgery. Anesth. Analg., 83(2): 279-285. [Crossref] [PubMed]
31. Rahardjo, T.M. (2015) Propofol effect on stress response and free radicals in patient during surgery and sedation procedure. Indones Biomed. J., 7(3): 147-152. [Crossref]
32. Flaherty, D. (2013) Alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists in small animal practice 1. Why they do what they do. Practice, 35: 524-530. [Crossref]
33. Jena, B., Das, J., Nath, I., Sardar, K.K., Sahoo, A., Beura, S.S. and Painuli, A. (2014) Clinical evaluation of TIVA using xylazine or dexmedetomidine with propofol in surgical management of canine patients. Vet. World, 7(9): 671-680. [Crossref]
34. NIH. (1985) Respect for Life. National Institute of Environmental Health Science. Available from: http://www.niehs. nih.gov/oc/factsheets/wri/studybgn.htm:85-93. Last accessed on 08-05-2018.
35. Saganuwan, S.A. (2012) Principles of Pharmacological Calculations. 1st ed. Ahmadu Bello University Printing Press, Zaria, Nigeria. p529.
36. Fossum, W.T. (2014) Complications of intestinal surgery. In: Textbook of Small Animal Surgery. 4th ed. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA. p460-461.
38. Khoo, B., Boshier P.R., Freethy, A., Tharakan, G., Saeed, S., Hill, N., Willians, E.L., Moorthy, K., Tolley, N., Jiao, L.R., Spalding, D., Palazzo, F., Meeran, K. and Tan, T. (2017) Redefining the stress cortisol response to surgery. Clin. Endocrinol., 87(5): 451-458. [Crossref] [PubMed]
40. Jan, B.V. and Lowry, S.T. (2010) Systemic response to injury and metabolic support. In: Brunicardi, F.C., Andersen. D.K., Billiar. T.R., Dunn. D.L., Hunter. J.G., Matthews. J.B. and Pollock. R.E., editors. Schwartz's Principles of Surgery. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. p15-49.
41. Lattermann, R., Carli, F., Wykes, L. and Schricker, T. (2002) Epidural blockade modifies perioperative glucose production without affecting protein catabolism. Anesthesiology, 97: 374-381. [Crossref] [PubMed]
42. Duncan, J. (1998) Clinical biochemistry. In: BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Clinical Pathology. BSAVA, Cheltenham. p61-85.
43. Hubner, M., Mantziari, S., Demartines, N., Pralong, F., Coti-Bertrand, P. and Schafer, M. (2016) Postoperative albumin drop is a marker for surgical stress and a predictor for clinical outcome: A pilot study. Gastroenterol. Res. Pract., 2016: 1-8. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
44. Fleck, A., Colley, C.M. and Myers, M.A. (1985) Liver export proteins and trauma. Br. Med. Bull., 41(3): 265-273. [Crossref]
45. Smeets, H.J., Kievit, J., Dulfer, F.T., Hermans, J. and Moolenaar, A.J. (1994) Analysis of post-operative hypalbuminaemia: A clinical study. Int. Surg., 79(2): 152-157. [PubMed]
46. Ryan, A.M., Hearty, A., Prichard, R.S., Cunningham, A., Rowley, S.P. and Reynolds, J.V. (2007) Association of hypoalbuminemia on the first postoperative day and complications following esophagectomy. J. Gastrointest. Surg., 11(10): 1355-1360. [Crossref] [PubMed][Crossref] [PubMed]