Article history: Received: 05-11-2017, Accepted: 31-01-2018, Published online: 04-03-2018
Corresponding author: Jancy Gupta
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Kumar V, Gupta J (2018) Prevailing practices in the use of antibiotics by dairy farmers in Eastern Haryana region of India, Veterinary World, 11(3): 274-280.
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the antibiotic use in dairy animals and to trace its usage pattern among the small, medium, and large dairy farmers in Eastern Haryana region of India.
Materials and Methods: Karnal and Kurukshetra districts from Eastern region of Haryana state were purposively selected, and four villages from each district were selected randomly. From each village, 21 farmers were selected using stratified random sampling by categorizing into small, medium, and large farmers constituting a total of 168 farmers as respondents. An antibiotic usage index (AUI) was developed to assess usage of antibiotics by dairy farmers.
Results: Frequency of veterinary consultancy was high among large dairy farmers, and they mostly preferred veterinarians over para-veterinarians for treatment of dairy animals. Small farmers demanded low-cost antibiotics from veterinarians whereas large farmers rarely went for it. Antibiotics were used maximum for therapeutic purposes by all categories of farmers. Completion of treatment schedules and follow-up were strictly practiced by the majority of large farmers. AUI revealed that large farmers were more consistent on decision-making about prudent use of antibiotics. Routine use of antibiotics after parturition to prevent disease and sale of milk without adhering to withdrawal period was responsible for aggravating the antibiotic resistance. The extent of antibiotic use by small farmers depended on the severity of disease. The large farmers opted for the prophylactic use of antibiotics at the herd level.
Conclusion: Antibiotic usage practices were judicious among large dairy farmers, moderately prudent by medium dairy farmers and faulty by small farmers. The frequency of veterinary consultancy promoted better veterinary-client relationship among large farmers.
Keywords: antibiotic usage, treatment schedules, veterinary consultancy, withdrawal period.
1. World Health Organization. (2015) World health statistics 2015. Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance. World Health Organization, Geneva.
2. O'Neill, J. (2014) Antimicrobial resistance: Tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations. Rev. Antimicrob. Resist., 20: 1-16.
3. Trevisi, E., Zecconi, A., Cogrossi, S., Razzuoli, E., Grossi, P. and Amadori, M. (2014) Strategies for reduced antibiotic usage in dairy cattle farms. Res. Vet. Sci., 96: 229-233. [Crossref] [PubMed]
4. Oliver , S.P., Murinda, S.E. and Jayarao, B.M. (2011) Impact of antibiotic use in adult dairy cows on antimicrobial resistance of veterinary and human pathogens: A comprehensive review. Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 8: 337-355.
5. Manimaran, A., Layek, S.S., Kumaresan, A., Prasad, S., Sreela, L., Boopathi, V. and Venkatasubramanian, V. (2014) Estimation of antimicrobial drug usage for treatment of clinical mastitis cases in organized dairy farm. Sci. Res., 43: 140-150.
6. Thomsen, P. (2005) Loser Cows in Danish Dairy Herds. In Loser Cows in Danish Dairy Herds Denmark, p109-114.
8. Gibbons, J.F., Boland, F., Buckley, J.F., Butler, F., Egan, J., Fanning, S. and Leonard, F.C. (2013) Influences on antimicrobial prescribing behaviour of veterinary practitioners in cattle practice in Ireland. Vet. Rec., 172: 14-14. [Crossref] [PubMed]
9. Van Boeckel, T.P., Brower, C., Gilbert, M., Grenfell, B.T., Levin, S.A., Robinson, T.P. and Laxminarayan, R. (2015) Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 112: 5649-5654. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
10. Davies, D.S. (2014) Antimicrobial resistance-why the irresponsible use of antibiotics in agriculture must stop. World Health, 1:1-40.
11. Delgado, C.L., Narrod, C.A. and Tiongco, M.M. (2003) Project on Livestock Industrialization, Trade and Social-Health-Environment Impacts in Developing Countries, FAO Corporate Document Repository.
12. Chandy, S.J., Michael, J.S., Veeraraghavan, B., Abraham, O.C., Bachhav, S.S. and Kshirsagar, N.A. (2014) ICMR programme on antibiotic stewardship, prevention of infection and control (ASPIC). Indian J. Med. Res., 139: 226. [PubMed] [PMC]
13. Paredes, P., De La Pe-a, M., Flores-Guerra, E., Diaz, J. and Trostle, J. (1996) Factors influencing physicians' prescribing behaviour in the treatment of childhood diarrhoea: Knowledge may not be the clue. Soc. Sci. Med., 42: 1141-1153. [Crossref]
14. Groot, M.J. and van't Hooft, K.E. (2016) The hidden effects of dairy farming on public and environmental health in the Netherlands, India, Ethiopia, and Uganda, considering the use of antibiotics and other agro-chemicals. Front. Public Health, 4: 12. [Crossref]
16. Rathod, P., Hiremath, S., Manjunathachar, H.V., Balaraj, B.L. and Bangar, Y. (2014) Adoption status of livestock innovations and factors affecting their adoption in Bidar District of Karnataka. Indian J. Field Vet., 9: 62-65.
17. Rathod, P., Chander, M. and Desai, B.A. (2013) Vaccination strategy for prevention and control of economically important livestock diseases in Karnataka. Indian J. Field Vet., 8: 29-33.
18. Redding, L.E., Cubas-Delgado, F., Sammel, M.D., Smith, G., Galligan, D.T., Levy, M.Z. and Hennessy, S. (2014) The use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in rural Peru. Prev. Vet. Med., 113: 88-95. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
20. National Research Council. (1999). The use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
21. Mellon, M., Benbrook, C. and Benbrook, K.L. (2001) Hogging it. Estimates of Antimicrobial abuse in Livestock. Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge (MA). p7-9.
23. Sahoo, K.C., Tamhankar, A.J., Johansson, E. and Lundborg, C.S. (2010) Antibiotic use, resistance development and environmental factors: A qualitative study among healthcare professionals in Orissa, India. BMC Public Health, 10: 629. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
24. Grace, D. (2015) Review of Evidence on Antimicrobial Resistance and Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries. Evidence on Demand, UK. [Crossref]
25. Kitazono, Y., Ihara, I., Yoshida, G., Toyoda, K. and Umetsu, K. (2012) Selective degradation of tetracycline antibiotics present in raw milk by electrochemical method. J. Hazard. Mater., 243: 112-116. [Crossref] [PubMed]
27. Vaarst, M., Paarup-Laursen, B., Houe, H., Fossing, C. and Andersen, H.J. (2002) Farmers' choice of medical treatment of mastitis in Danish dairy herds based on qualitative research interviews. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 992-1001. [Crossref]
29. Brunton, L.A., Duncan, D., Coldham, N.G., Snow, L.C. and Jones, J.R. (2012) A survey of antimicrobial usage on dairy farms and waste milk feeding practices in England and Wales. Vet. Rec., 171: 296-296. [Crossref] [PubMed]
30. Dunn-Rankin, P. and King, F.J. (1969) Multiple comparisons in a simplified rank method of scaling. Educ. Psychol. Meas., 29: 315-329. [Crossref]
31. Eltayb, A., Barakat, S., Marrone, G., Shaddad, S. and Stalsby, L.C. (2012) Antibiotic use and resistance in animal farming: a quantitative and qualitative study on knowledge and practices among farmers in Khartoum, Sudan. Zoonoses Public Health, 59: 330-338. [Crossref] [PubMed]
33. Nair, B.N., Natesan, N.P. and Kempanna, K.S. (2015) Role of ethno-veterinary practices (EVP) in reducing antimicrobial resistance in livestock production systems: A field experience. Planta Med., 81: 3-6.34. Lam, T.J.G.M., Wessels, R.J. and Jansen, J. (2016) Reset the Mindset on Antibiotic Usage in Dairy Cows. In: The 29th World Buiatrics Congress, Dublin 2016-Congress Proceedings. By: Veterinary Ireland.