Article history: Received: 08-04-2018, Accepted: 10-10-2018, Published online: 22-11-2018
Corresponding author: Pipat Arunvipas
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Kananub S, VanLeeuwen JA, Arunvipas P (2018) Association between milk urea nitrogen and first service conception in smallholder dairy farms under heat and humidity stress, Veterinary World, 11(11): 1604-1608.
Aim: The study was to evaluate the relationship between the first service conception (FSC) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) in smallholder dairy farms under heat and humidity stress.
Materials and Methods: Dairy cows from 43 dairy farms giving birth between November 2014 and April 2015 (n=295) contributed to the study. All cows were sampled monthly to measure milk compositions, and we collected additional farm data from farmers through a questionnaire. The first service during the first 120 days of lactation was the outcome of interest in this study. Multivariable logistic regression determined significant associations with FSC.
Results: The overall FSC was 22% and the mean MUN concentration was 11.55 mg/dl. The final FSC model included MUN concentration, the season of breeding, and protein energy ratio (PE ratio) in the diet. The odds of FSC were reduced by approximately 10% for each mg/dl higher MUN on the day of the milk sample that was nearest to the artificial insemination (AI) day. The odds of FSC were nearly 3 times higher when the first insemination occurred in winter compared to summer first services. Taking into account the nutritional factors, the odds of FSC were nearly 70% higher with an increase in PE ratio of 10 g of crude protein/Mcal from the mean of 35.90 g.
Conclusion: This study of smallholder dairy farmers in the hot and humid climate of Thailand confirmed that season, nutritional management, and MUN concentration were associated with FSC. MUN appears to be a useful indicator to monitor the effects of diet on reproductive performance from this study.
Keywords: first service conception, milk urea nitrogen, smallholder farm.
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