Open Access
Review (Published online: 20-10-2018)
17. Opportunities and challenges associated with fecal progesterone metabolite analysis
Innocent Damudu Peter, Abd Wahid Haron, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Mokrish Ajat, Mark Hiew Wen Han, Wan Nor Fitri, Muhammad Sanusi Yahaya and Mohammed Saad M. Alamaary
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1466-1472

Innocent Damudu Peter: Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Abd Wahid Haron: Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse: Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Mokrish Ajat: Department of Veterinary Pre Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Mark Hiew Wen Han: Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Wan Nor Fitri: Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Muhammad Sanusi Yahaya: Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Mohammed Saad M. Alamaary: Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.1466-1472

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Article history: Received: 08-07-2018, Accepted: 12-09-2018 Published online: 20-10-2018

Corresponding author: Abd Wahid Haron


Citation: Peter ID, Haron AW, Jesse FFA, Ajat M, Han MHW, Fitri WN, Yahaya MS, Alamaary MSM (2018) Opportunities and challenges associated with fecal progesterone metabolite analysis, Veterinary World, 11(10): 1466-1472.

Conventionally, plasma or milk progesterone evaluations are used to determine the reproductive status of female animals. Collection of such samples is often associated with difficulties of animal handling and restraint. Measurable quantities of progesterone metabolites are found in feces of animals. Their concentrations are known to be well correlated to plasma progesterone levels and are, therefore, used as non-invasive samples for assessing reproductive function in a wide range of animal species. Although the analysis of fecal progesterone metabolites has been widely accepted in many laboratories, several factors are known to affect the results from this valuable analytical technique. Some of these factors include storage/ transportation media for fecal samples, type of solvent that is used for extraction of progesterone metabolites from feces, and the type and sensitivity of an assaying technique employed. Although fecal progesterone metabolites analysis is associated with some difficulties, it can effectively be used to monitor reproductive function in a wide range of animal species. This review aims to highlight the usefulness of fecal progesterone metabolite analysis as a non-invasive technique in monitoring reproductive function in animals. The article mainly focuses on the many opportunities and challenges associated with this analytical technique.

Keywords: non-invasive methods, progesterone metabolite, progesterone, reproductive cycles.


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