Open Access
Research (Published online: 26-10-2018)
23. Bacteriological survey of bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Yu Michimuko-Nagahara, Yu Tamura and Masateru Koiwa
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1506-1509

Yu Michimuko-Nagahara: Japan International Cooperation Agency Volunteers, Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
Yu Tamura: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan; Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.
Masateru Koiwa: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2018.1506-1509

Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]

Article history: Received: 21-05-2018, Accepted: 14-09-2018, Published online: 26-10-2018

Corresponding author: Yu Tamura


Citation: Michimuko-Nagahara Y, Tamura Y, Koiwa M (2018) Bacteriological survey of bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, Veterinary World, 11(10): 1506-1509.

Background and Aim: Recently, bacterial surveys for mastitis-causing pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) have been conducted in several countries worldwide. However, no such surveys have been reported from Bolivia. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in BTM from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Materials and Methods: Between July 2016 and August 2017, a total of 43 BTM samples were collected from 3264 cows to determine bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) and identify mastitis-causing bacteria. BTSCC was classified as follows: = <100×103, 100-500×103, 500-1000×103, and >1000×103 cells/mL.

Results: Mastitis-causing pathogens identified by agar medium cultures included Bacillus spp., coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus (SA), streptococci, and other species. The proportions of BTSCC of <100×103, 200-500×103, 500-1000×103, and >1000×103 cells/ml were 0%, 37%, 51%, and 12%, respectively. The proportions of coliforms, streptococci, CNS, Bacillus spp., SA, and others detected in BTM were 33%, 30%, 16%, 7%, 2%, and 16%, respectively.

Conclusion: Although the herd prevalence of contagious mastitis-causing pathogens, such as SA, in BTM was low, increased BTSCC were identified in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Keywords: bacterial survey, Bolivia, bulk tank milk, dairy farm, mastitis.


1. Azevedo, C., Pacheco, D., Soares, L., Romao, R., Moitoso, M., Maldonado, J., Guix, R. and Simoes, J. (2016) Prevalence of contagious and environmental mastitis-causing bacteria in bulk tank milk and its relationships with milking practices of dairy cattle herds in Sao Miguel Island (Azores). Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 48(2): 451-459. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

2. Bi, Y., Wang, Y.J., Qin, Y., Vallverdu, R.G., Garcia, J.M., Sun, W., Li, S. and Cao, Z. (2016) Prevalence of bovine mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in China. PLoS One, 11(5): e0155621. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

3. Busanello, M., de Freitas, L.N., Winckler, J.P.P., Farias, H.P., Dos Santos Dias, C.T., Cassoli, L.D. and Machado, P.F. (2017) Month-wise variation and prediction of bulk tank somatic cell count in Brazilian dairy herds and its impact on payment based on milk quality. Ir. Vet. J., 70(1): 26. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

4. Cortimiglia, C., Luini, M., Bianchini, V., Marzagalli, L., Vezzoli, F., Avisani, D., Bertoletti, M., Ianzano, A., Franco, A. and Battisti, A. (2016) Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus clonal complexes in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Lombardy region (Northern Italy). Epidemiol. Infect., 144(14): 3046-3051. [Crossref] [PubMed]

5. DeLong, K.L., Lambert, D.M., Schexnayder, S., Krawczel, P., Fly, M., Garkovich, L. and Oliver, S. (2017) Farm business and operator variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count from dairy herds in the Southeastern United States. J. Dairy Sci., 100(11): 9298-9310. [Crossref] [PubMed]

6. Francoz, D., Bergeron, L., Nadeau, M. and Beauchamp, G. (2012) Prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in Quebec. Can. Vet. J., 53(10): 1071-1078. [PubMed] [PMC]

7. Katholm, J., Bennedsgaard, T.W., Koskinen, M.T. and Rattenborg, E. (2012) Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens. J. Dairy Sci., 95(10): 5702-5708. [Crossref] [PubMed]

8. Norman, H.D., Lombard, J.E., Wright, J.R., Kopral, C.A., Rodriguez, J.M. and Miller, R.H. (2011) Consequence of alternative standards for bulk tank somatic cell count of dairy herds in the United States. J. Dairy Sci., 94(12): 6243-6256. [Crossref] [PubMed]

9. Riekerink, R.G.O., Barkema, H.W., Veenstra, S., Poole, D.E., Dingwell, R.T. and Keefe, G.P. (2006) Prevalence of contagious mastitis pathogens in bulk tank milk in Prince Edward Island. Can. Vet. J., 47(6): 567-572. [PMC]

10. Rysanek, D., Zouharova, M. and Babak, V. (2009) Monitoring major mastitis pathogens at the population level based on examination of bulk tank milk samples. J. Dairy Res., 76(1): 117-123. [Crossref] [PubMed]

11. Zanardi, G., Caminiti, A., Delle, D.G., Moroni, P., Santi, A., Galletti, G., Tamba, M., Bolzoni, G. and Bertocchi, L. (2014) Short communication: Comparing real-time PCR and bacteriological cultures for Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus in bulk-tank milk samples. J. Dairy Sci., 97(9): 5592-5598. [Crossref] [PubMed]

12. Ronco, T., Klaas, I.C., Stegger, M., Svennesen, L., Astrup, L.B., Farre, M. and Pedersen, K. (2018) Genomic investigation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bulk tank milk and dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Vet. Microbiol., 215 : 35-42. [Crossref] [PubMed]

13. Ruegg, P.L. (2017) A 100-year review: Mastitis detection, management, and prevention. J. Dairy Sci., 100(12): 10381-10397. [Crossref] [PubMed]

14. Down, P.M., Bradley, A.J., Breen, J.E., Hudson, C.D. and Green, M.J. (2016) Current management practices and interventions prioritised as part of a nationwide mastitis control plan. Vet. Rec., 178(18): 449. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

15. Petzer, I.M., Karzis, J., Donkin, E.F. and Webb, E.C. (2016) A pathogen-specific approach towards udder health management in dairy herds: Using culture and somatic cell counts from routine herd investigations. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 83(1): e1-e12. [Crossref] [PubMed]

16. Rodrigues, A.C., Caraviello, D.Z. and Ruegg, P.L. (2005) Management of wisconsin dairy herds enrolled in milk quality teams. J. Dairy Sci., 88(7): 2660-2671. [Crossref]

17. Birhanu, M., Leta, S., Mamo, G. and Tesfaye, S. (2017) Prevalence of bovine subclinical mastitis and isolation of its major causes in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia. BMC Res. Notes, 10(1): 767. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

18. Hajna, A.A. and Perry C.A. (1943) Comparative study of presumptive and confirmative media for bacteria of the coliform group and for fecal streptococci. Am. J. Public Health Nations Health, 33(5): 550-556. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

19. Hogan, J.S., Gonzalez, R.N., Harmon, R.J., Nickerson, S.C., Oliver, S.P., Pankey, J.W. and Smith, K.L. (1999) Laboratory Handbook on Bovine Mastitis. Revised ed. National Mastitis Council, Madison, W.I. p1-33.

20. Yang, F.Y., Shen, C., He, B.X., Yang, Y.Y., Gong, D.C. and Li, X.S. (2015) The prevalence of heifer mastitis and its associated risk factors in Huanggang, Central China. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 47(1): 87-92. [Crossref] [PubMed]

21. Bramley, A.J., McKinnon, C.H., Staker, R.T. and Simpkin, D.L. (1984) The effect of udder infection on the bacterial flora of the bulk milk of ten dairy herds. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 57(2): 317-323. [Crossref] [PubMed]

22. Godkin, M.A. and Leslie, K.E. (1993) Culture of bulk tank milk as a mastitis screening test: A brief review. Can. Vet. J., 34(10): 601-605. [PubMed] [PMC]

23. Jayarao, B.M. and Wolfgang, D.R. (2003) Bulk-tank milk analysis. A useful tool for improving milk quality and herd udder health. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract., 19(1): 75-92. [Crossref]

24. Hand, K.J., Godkin, A. and Kelton, D.F. (2012) Milk production and somatic cell counts: A cow-level analysis. J. Dairy Sci., 95(3): 1358-1362. [Crossref] [PubMed]

25. Sharma, N., Singh, N.K. and Bhadwal, M.S. (2011) Relationship of somatic cell count and mastitis: An overview. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 24(3): 429-438. [Crossref]