Article history: Received: 16-05-2018, Accepted: 01-08-2018, Published online: 18-09-2018
Corresponding author: Rajendra Palkhade
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Palkhade R, Yadav S, Mishra S, Muhamed J (2018) Acute oral toxicity of pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) in Sprague-Dawley rats, Veterinary World, 11(9): 1291-1297.
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxic interaction and lethal dose (LD50) of pesticide combination product (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) available in the market in Sprague-Dawley female rats by oral route.
Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into two groups, comprising five rats in each dose group. Both groups were identified as control and test groups, respectively. Control group received sterile water as vehicle and test group received pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) at a dose of 0 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. As per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guideline 420, initially one animal each from both the control and test groups were dosed with 0 and 2000 mg/kg, respectively, as sighting study. Based on the results of sighting study, additionally, four animals each from both groups were dosed with the same dose to make a total of five animals in each group. Dose volume was constant as 10 mL/kg. All animals were observed daily twice for clinical signs and mortality. Body weight was recorded on day 0 and weekly thereafter during 14 days' observation period; last body weight (fasted) was recorded on day 15. All the rats of both the groups were humanely sacrificed on day 15 for gross pathology, collection of organs for histopathology, organ weighing, and morphometry. Organ weights were taken as absolute values, and relative organ weights to last fasted body weights were calculated.
Results: Pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) treated rats showed cholinergic signs with one mortality in the test group. No significant difference was observed in body weight, relative organ weights, and organ morphometry between pesticide combination exposed and non-exposed groups. Gross pathology of the treated rats was also comparable with respect to control group. Histopathological changes in the liver, kidneys, heart, lung, adrenaline, spleen, and ovaries of test group rats were found to be comparable with control group rats.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the LD50 of one of the combination products available in the market having acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients in Sprague-Dawley female rats which is >2000 mg/kg body weight. Furthermore, gross, histopathology and histoarchitectural alterations of all the vital organs of the test group were comparable to the control.
Keywords: acephate 50%, acute oral toxicity, histopathology, imidacloprid 1.8%.
1. Fernando, P.C. (2017) Pesticides, environment, and food safety. Food Energy Secur., 6: 48-60. [Crossref]
2. Jallow, M.F.A., Awadh, D.G., Albaho, M.S., Devi, V.Y. and Thomas, B.M. (2017) Pesticide knowledge and safety practices among farm workers in Kuwait: Results of a survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 14: 340. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
3. WHO. (2014) Preventing Suicide: A Global Imperative, 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office. WHO, Washington, DC.
4. Ssemugabo, C., Halage, A.A., Neebye, R.M., Nabankema, V., Kasule, M.M., Ssekimpi, D. and Jors, E. (2017) Prevalence, circumstances, and management of acute pesticide poisoning in hospitals in Kampala City, Uganda. Environ. Health Insights, 11: 1178630217728924. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
5. Mew, E.J., Padmanathan, P., Konradsen, F., Eddleston, M., Chang, S.S., Phillips, M.R. and Gunnell, D. (2017) The global burden of fatal self-poisoning with pesticides 2006-15: Systematic review. J. Affect. Disorders, 219: 93-104. [Crossref] [PubMed]
6. Iyyadurai, R., Peter, J.V., Immanuel, S., Begum, A., Zachariah, A., Jasmine, S. and Abhilash, K.P. (2014) Organophosphate-pyrethroid combination pesticides may be associated with increased toxicity in human poisoning compared to either pesticide alone. Clin. Toxicol. (Philadelphia, Pa.), 52: 538-541. [Crossref] [PubMed]
8. Kalyan, R., Saini, D. and Babu, S.R. (2017) Evaluation of different doses of lancer gold (acephate 50% + imidacloprid 1.8% SP) against major insect pests of rice. J. Entomol. Zool. Stud., 5: 1677-1683.
9. CIBRC. (2017) Pesticides and Formulation Registered for use in the Country Under the Insecticide Act, 1968, 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office. CIBRC, Washington, DC.
10. Ilboudo, S., Fouche, E., Rizzati, V., Toe, A.M., Gamet-Payrastre, L. and Guissou, P.I. (2014) In vitro impact of five pesticides alone or in combination on human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Toxicol. Rep., 1: 474-489. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
11. IPCS. (2009) Assessment of Combined Exposure to Multiple Chemicals: Report of a WHO/IPCS International Workshop, 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office. IPCS, Washington, DC.
12. WHO. (2005) The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification: 2004, 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office. WHO, Washington, DC.
13. Soltaninejad, K. and Shadnia, S. (2014) In: Balali-Mood, M. and Abdollahi, M., editors. History of the use and Epidemiology of Organophosphorus Poisoning in Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorus Compounds. Springer London, London. p25-43. [Crossref]
15. USEPA. (1994) Memorandum: Registration for Imidacloprid (NTN 33893), 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office. USEPA, Washington, DC.
16. Aregahegn, K.Z., Shemesh, D., Gerber, R.B. and Finlayson-Pitts, B.J. (2017) Photochemistry of thin solid films of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on surfaces. Environ. Sci. Technol., 51: 2660-2668. [Crossref] [PubMed]
17. OECD/OCDE. (2001) OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals: Acute toxicity-Fixed Dose Procedure 420, 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office. OECD/OCDE, Washington, DC.
19. Liu, S.H., Lin, J.L., Shen, H.L., Chang, C.C., Huang, W.H., Weng, C.H., Hsu, C.W., Wang, I.K., Liang, C.C. and Yen, T.H. (2014) Acute large-dose exposure to organophosphates in patients with and without diabetes mellitus: Analysis of mortality rate and new-onset diabetes mellitus. Environ. Health, 13: 11. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
20. Gupta, P.K. and Moretto, A. (2005) Toxicological Monographs and Monograph, Addenda. Dipartimento. Medicina Ambientale e Sanita. Pubblica, Universita di. Padova, Padova, Italy. p4-5.
21. Kumar, V. and Upadhay, N. (2013) Chemical and biochemical mechanistic fate of acephate. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res., 4: 2674-2678.
22. Fishel, F.M. (2005) Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Neonicotinoid Pesticides, 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
23. Gammon, DW. (2008) Acephate Risk Characterization Document, 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
24. Doss, J.P. and Mohiyuddin, S. (2009) Acephate induced alterations in acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase. J Image Sci. Technol, 5: 6-11.
26. Worthing, C.R. and Walker, S.B. (1987) The Pesticide Manual. 8th ed. Thornton Health, British Crop Protection Council, U.K.
27. Briggs, S.A. (1992) Basic Guides to Pesticides: Their Characteristics and Hazards, The Rachel Carson Council, Washington, DC.
28. USEPA. (2012) Acephate 90 WDG Fact Sheet USEPA, 40CFR Part 261., US Government Printing Office. USEPA, Washington, DC.
29. Sheets, L.P. (1994) An Acute Oral Neurotoxicity Screening Study with Technical Grade Imidacloprid (NTN 33893) in Rats. Unpublished Report from Miles Inc. Report No. MOB7221, GLP, Supplement Report No. MOB7221, Dated 7 June 1994. Submitted to WHO by Bayer AG, Mannheim, Germany.
30. Bagri, P., Sikka, A.K. and Punia, J.S. (2013) Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice. Vet. World, 6: 955-959. [Crossref]
31. SERA. (2005) Imidacloprid-Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment-Final Report. Report from Syracuse Environmental Research Associates to USDA, Forest Service, Syracuse Environmental Research Associates, Inc. 5100 High bridge St., 42C Fayetteville, New York 13066-0950.
32. Nellore, K., Doss, J. and Chimata, M.K. (2013) Histopathological studies of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid on different regions of albino rat brain. Int. J. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 3: 73-77.
33. Thompson, H.M. (1996) Interactions between pesticides; A review of reported effects and their implications for wildlife risk assessment. Ecotoxicology (London, England), 5: 59-81. [Crossref] [PubMed][Crossref]