Article history: Received: 08-11-2017, Accepted: 20-07-2018, Published online: 06-09-2018
Corresponding author: Saleh E. Aly
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Aly SE, Hussein HA, Aly AM, Abdel-Baky MH, El-Sanousi AA (2018) Assessment of in vitro potency of inactivated Newcastle disease oil-adjuvanted vaccines using hemagglutination test and blocking ELISA, Veterinary World, 11(9): 1222-1228.
Aim: The present study was aimed to establish a protocol for the evaluation of the in vitro potency of commercial inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oil-adjuvanted vaccines using hemagglutination test (HA) and blocking ELISA (B-ELISA) based on polyclonal antibodies.
Materials and Methods: Aqueous phases from a total of 47 batches of inactivated NDV vaccines manufactured by 20 different companies were extracted with isopropyl myristate. The viral antigen in each sample was detected and quantified by a standard HA test and a B-ELISA assay. To verify the efficiency of the antigen extraction method used in the batches which showed HA and to test the validity of using in vitro antigen quantification by HA and B-ELISA tests, a subset of 13 batches (selected from the total 47 batches) was inoculated in groups of 3-4-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens using the recommended vaccine dose. The immunogenicity of the selected vaccine batches was assessed by the NDV-hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers in individual serum samples collected 4 weeks after vaccination. Further, the efficacy of the vaccines and their protection rates were determined by a challenge test carried out for the vaccinated chickens with the Egyptian 2012 isolate of the virulent NDV genotype VII.
Results: A strong correlation was observed between HA titers and B-ELISA mean titers in the tested 47 batches (R2=0.817). This indicated the possibility of using the latter in vitro assays for vaccine potency assessment. The recommended protective NDV antigen titer measured by B-ELISA was determined to be 28 ELISA units per dose. The comparison between the HA titers of the aqueous extracts of test vaccines and the corresponding results of in vivo potency assays (i.e., immunogenicity and efficacy), including antibody titers in the serum of vaccinated birds, indicated that the efficiency of the antigen extraction used may interfere with obtaining a strong correlation between the in vitro and in vivo results.
Conclusion: HA or B-ELISA tests can be used as rapid and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo potency tests for vaccine potency assessment by quantifying the NDV antigen present in aqueous phase extracts of the tested vaccines. The latter in vitro protocol, however, requires efficient extraction of the antigen to be able to obtain good correlation with the traditional in vivo potency tests.
Keywords: blocking ELISA, inactivated vaccines, in vitro, Newcastle disease virus, vaccine potency.
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