Open Access
Research (Published online: 31-01-2019)
27. First report and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans and animals in Khartoum state, Sudan
Kaltoum Yagoub Adam, A. A. Ismail, M. A. Masri and A. A. Gameel
Veterinary World, 12(1): 183-189

Kaltoum Yagoub Adam: Director General's Office, Ministry of Animal Resources, Fisheries and Range Lands, Nyala, South Darfur State, Sudan.
A. A. Ismail: (Deceased on 24 January 2015) Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.
M. A. Masri: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
A. A. Gameel: Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.183-189

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Article history: Received: 13-06-2018, Accepted: 20-11-2018, Published online: 31-01-2019

Corresponding author: Kaltoum Yagoub Adam


Citation: Adam KY, Ismail AA, Masri MA, Gameel AA (2019) First report and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans and animals in Khartoum state, Sudan, Veterinary World, 12(1): 183-189.

Background and Aim: Cryptosporidium is recognized to infect several mammalian species as well as humans, causing substantial economic losses and serious public health concern. Infected animals can be a source of environmental contamination and human infections. In general, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in animals and human in Sudan and zoonotic importance is not well documented. This study aimed to identify Cryptosporidium spp. infecting different animal species and humans and to compare between different isolates obtained.

Materials and Methods: To provide molecular information about Cryptosporidium in animals and humans, both modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) specific stain and molecular assay were used. Concentration techniques followed by three protocols of DNA extraction were carried out. After microscopic screening of 263 fecal samples (goats [n=197], cattle [n=12], sheep [n=12], and human [n=42]), 61 positive and 30 negative, randomly selected samples were used in nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting part of the 18S RNA.

Results: Nested PCR amplification confirmed 91.8% (56/61) of microscopic-positive samples. 8.2% (5/61) of negative samples by PCR (positive by microscopy) were considered false negatives. Sequencing followed by alignment of the 14 isolates indicated that all samples were identical (100%) and belonged to Cryptosporidium parvum.

Conclusion: MZN staining procedure is reliable for the routine diagnosis of Cryptosporidium; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide extraction buffer and nested PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene are reliable and useful in epidemiological studies of this parasite.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium parvum, nested polymerase chain reaction, staining techniques, Sudan, zoonotic.


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