Veterinary World

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916
       
 

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November - 2010


Original Research

1.            Isolation, serological and real time PCR diagnosis of Peste Des Petites Ruminants virus in naturally exposed Arabian gazelle in Saudi Arabia - S. S. Sharawi, M. R. Yousef, A. N. AlHofufy and M. H. AlBlowi
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 489-494


Oculo-nasal swab and serum samples collected from peste des petits ruminants (PPR)-suspected Arabian Gazelle (Gazella gazella) were tested . For the presence of peste des petite ruminants virus (PPRV) [pest of small ruminants virus] or it’s RNA; Immune-capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ic-ELIZA), real time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay using SYBR Green 1 chemistry as well as virus isolation (VI) were done. The serum was examined for the presence of the PPRV anti-bodies by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELIZA). The swab samples and harvested inoculated cells were positive by Immune-capture ELIZA and rRT-PCR. While the tested serum was negative for PPRV anti-bodies. The study indicated the scenario of probably virus circulation in these game animal population and prevalence in actual outbreaks situation, which may be kept in mind while deciding the vaccination strategy for the control of disease. For the authors this is the first report of PPRV isolation and detection among Arabian Gazelle in Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: Arabian Gazelle, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, Peste des petite ruminants virus, Real time, Sybr Green.


 Abstract & References  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.489-494
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Original Research

2.            Detection of E. coli and Staphylococcus in milk and milk products in and around Pantnagar - Rajeev Kumar and Amit Prasad

Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 495-496


The study was designed with the aim to isolate Staphylococcus and E.coli from milk (dairy farm, vendors and house) and milk products (viz; Dahi, Ice cream, Gulabjamun, Burfi, Khoa and Butter). All samples were inoculated on different bacteriological media and various biochemical tests were performed for the confirmation of isolates. The result of the present study revealed that out of 135 samples, 25 samples were found contaminated with Staphylococcus (14) and E.coli (11). The highest rate of contamination was recorded in Burfi (5) while the lowest was recorded in Ice cream (1). These enteropathogenic bacteria may cause problems due to improper handling and processing of milk and milk products. These organisms are significant from public health point of view as they have been associated with the onset of food poisoning in human beings.
Keywords: Staphylococcus, E.coli, Food poisoning, Milk Products, Public Health, Entero-pathogenic bacteria.


 Abstract & References  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.495-496
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Original Research

3.            Cytological evaluation of bone marrow in normal laying hens and those with lymphoid leukosis  - H. I. AlSadi and E. Y. Hussein
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 497-499


The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytologically the bone marrow (and peripheral blood) of adult laying hens affected with lymphoid leukosis. Diagnosis of the neoplasm was made on the basis of clinical history, signs and symptoms and pathology. Only histologically confirmed cases were included in the study. Examination of blood smears revealed +2 heterophil toxicity and the presence of large numbers of reactive (blast – transformed) lymphocytes. Smears that were prepared from the bone marrow showed increased numbers of hemopoietic cells. The total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin percentage (Hb%) , hemoglobin concentration (Hb conc.), packed cell volume (PCV) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) values were significantly higher (P<0.01) in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were significantly lower (P< 0.01) in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. Results of the leukogram indicated that the total leukocyte count (TLC) and the percentage (%) of lymphocytes were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in hens with lymphoid leukosis than in apparently normal hens. From results of this study it was concluded that cytological evaluation of bone marrow may prove to be a simple, rapid , and useful tool in the diagnosis of lymphoid leukosis in laying hens.
Keywords : Laying Hens , Bone Marrow , Cytology, Tumor, Blood smear, Lymphoid leukosis.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

4.            Prevalence of coccidia in Mathura region of Uttarpradesh - Hari Om, Sanjiv Kumar and Pawanjit Singh
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 503-505


The present was done in sheep in Mathura region to identify the parasitic infections which was proving to be very harmful to them. For this purpose faecal samples were collected and examined. Maximum cases were found to be positive for coccidia. Prevalence of coccidian was further categorized in the basis of age of sheep and months of year. Samples were incubated for their sporulation and the five Eimeria species was identified on their morphology. It was found that maximum infection is in age group of below six months and in month of October. The individual species prevalence was more for Eimeria ovina and that the favorable temperature for all the five species of Eimeria ranged between 30C and 37C.
Key words: Faecal samples, Coccidia, Morphology, Sporulation, Parasite.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

5.            Identification of gelatinases involved in the rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors in chicks as prognostic markers - A. M. Kotresh and Meena Kataria
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 500-502


The present work is undertaken to study the expression of levels of gelatinases in tumorogenesis by Rous sarcoma virus(RSV) in layer chicks and explored the possibility of using gelatinases as potential biological markers in metastatic neoplasms. Two days old chicks (40) were divided into two groups (Gp I and Gp II). Gp-I (20) treated with Rous sarcoma virus for tumor induction. The Gp II (control) was inoculated with RPMI-1640. Tumors appeared earliest by three days post infection with RSV and were progressive leading to mortality of birds by twenty eight days. Distant tumors were observed in liver, heart, lung, and kidney on post mortem. A prominent band of gelatinase of around 75 kDa was detected in plasma of infected chicks by gelatin zymography. Results indicate over expression of gelatinases and are leaked into plasma on Rous sarcoma virus infection. Expression of gelatinases in primary tumors, metastasized liver, heart, lung and kidney and corresponding tissues in healthy control chicks was determined by RT-PCR analysis. Over expression of gelatinase gene was observed in metastaic tissues and primary tumors than control. The described assays could be used as a prognostic assay method for detection of proteases in metastatic neoplasms of animals.
Keywords: Tumor, Chick, Prognostic Marker, Gelatinases, Virus


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

6.            Comparison of standard tube agglutination test and indirect haemagglutination test in the detection of listerial antibodies in animals - Pushpa H. Rathod , N. M. Shah, A. I. Dadawala, H. C. Chauhan, Sandip S. Patel, Khushboo Singh, P. Ranaware and B. S. Chandel
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 506-508


Efficacy of standard tube agglutination test (STAT) & indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) was compared for detecting listerial antibodies in cattle and buffaloes. Out of 530 serum samples (263 cattle and 267 buffaloes) 165 serum samples (31.13 %) gave positive reaction by STAT while 151 serum samples (28.49 %) gave positive reaction by IHA. It was observed that both the tests are equally efficient in detecting listerial antibodies.
Keywords: Standard tube agglutination test, Indirect Haemagglutination test, Antibodies, Listeria, Laboratory Technique, Detection.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

7.            Effect of slaughter weight on slaughter performance of a native swine breed “Ghungroo” of Duars’ valley and allied zone - Anupam Khan, Dipanwita Patra, Gopal Patra and Subhasish Biswas
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 509-511


Ghungroo (GR) is a native pig breed which is mainly reared by the tribes of Duars’ Valley and allied zone. To assess the breed’s performance more comprehensively, a research work had been planned to evaluate the effect of slaughter weight on slaughter performance by dividing 18 GR pigs in three groups (viz. 40-50 Kg, 50-60 Kg and 60-70 Kg) having six animals in each group. Hot Carcass Weight, Dressing Percentage, Chilled Carcass Weight, Loin Eye Area, Back Fat Thickness, Carcass Length, shoulder weight, ham weight and loin weight increased significantly(P<0.01) while shoulder percentage, ham percentage, loin percentage and head percentage decreased significantly (P<0.01) with the increase in slaughter weight.
Key words: Ghungroo Pig, Slaughter Performance, Slaughter Weight.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Case Report

8.            Fifth legged pygomelia in a cross bred cow calf - J. N. Mistry, P. B. Patel, D. N. Suthar and J. B. Patel
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 512-512


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Case Report

9.            Tension band wiring for avulsion fracture of olecranon in a dog - K. M. Srinivasamurthy, Md.Arif Basha, V. Mahesh, D. R. Manjunatha and Ranganath
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 513-514


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Review Article

10.          Use of medicinal plants to control Haemonchus contortus infection in small ruminants - Qadir Sawleha, A. K. Dixit and Pooja Dixit
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 515-518


Haemonchus contortus is singly the most important of all the gastrointestinal nematodes that constrain the survival and productivity of sheep and goats owned by rural poor farmers in the developing world. This haematophagus parasite is infamous throughout the humid tropics/subtropics, being responsible for acute disease outbreaks with high levels of mortalities, particularly in young animals. Costs associated with control of this parasite in India, have been estimated to be US$ 103 million. H. contortus is also prominent amongst the reports of anthelmintic resistance that has emerged in all countries of the world that produce small ruminants. This emergence of multiple anthelmintic resistances has provided a spur for research on alternative forms of control. Recent surveys in developing countries have identified many plants that are intended and have the potential to be used as anthelmintics. This paper reviews the use of some medicinal plants as anthelmintics against H. contortus infection in small ruminants.
Keywords : Control, Gastro-intestinal parasitism, Haemonchus contortus, Medicinal plants, Small ruminants, Herbal antiparasitic, Ethnoveterinary


 Abstract & References  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.515-518
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Review Article

11.          Effect of climatic changes on the prevalence of zoonotic diseases - Neelam Sachan and V. P. Singh
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 519-522


Combustion of fossil fuels and human activities has led to sharp increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These climate changes have tremendous effect on prevalence of zoonotic diseases. The changes in climate may increase the insect vectors, prolong transmission cycles or increase the importation of vectors or animal reservoirs. It may also have an adverse effect on biodiversity, distribution of animals and microflora which may lead to emergence of zoonotic disease outbreaks. A historical perspective on major vector-borne diseases such as arboviral encephalitides, dengue fever and Rift Valley fever, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, malaria, plague, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and dengue fever have been shown to have a distinct seasonal pattern and in some instances their frequency has been shown to be weather sensitive. Because of the sensitivities of the vectors and animal hosts of these diseases to climactic factors, climate change-driven ecological changes such as variations in rainfall and temperature could significantly alter the range, seasonality and human incidence of many zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The evolution of emerging zoonotic diseases globally during the period 1996 to 2007 was Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, avian influenza H5N1, plague and Nipah virus. Whereas, bird flu and swine flu like diseases are still creating havoc for human and animal health worldwide. It is a today’s and tomorrow’s demand that interdisciplinary communication between health professionals, veterinarians, environmental scientists, ecologists, geographers and economists seeking to understand climate change will be key to protecting people in India and worldwide against these threats. Rigorous cross-disciplinary studies using a variety of methodological tools will enable us to predict the transmission dynamics of diseases under different climate scenarios and estimate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies. In this text some of important diseases which are dependant on global warming and climate changes have been discussed taken for and can change their prevalence rate is considered for discussion.
Key words: Global warming, zoonotic diseases, avian influenza, swine flue, Japanese encephalitis, nipah virus, rabies, leptospirosis


 Abstract & References  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.519-522
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Review Article

12.          Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase : A recessive disorder in holstein friesian cattle - Vijay Kumar, Ramesh Kumar Singh and Ashwani Sharma
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 523-525


The present review is to summarise findings on one of the most important recessive hereditary disorder deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) in cattle. It is a disease of Holstein cattle characterized by lowered blood activity of enzyme uridine monophosphate synthase (UMPS). DUMPS leads to embryonic death in early stage of pregnancy. So some serious reproductive problems take place in dairy herds. Several investigations were carried out in different countries. No carrier animals were found among Holstein populations in Poland, Iran, India and Turkey, but the mutant allele was detected in the studies carried out in U.S.A. and Argentina. DUMPS of Holstein cattle is a component of the hypothesized multi-component complex. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. A carrier-normal mating results in one-half carriers, regardless of sex. Embryo homozygous for DUMPS die early in gestation and do not survive to the birth. The embryos often are resorbed during the first two-month of gestation, leading to more services per calving and longer than normal calving intervals (Shanke and Robinson, 1989). The only way to avoid economic losses is an early detection of DUMPS carriers. The use of PCR based molecular technologies promises quick detection of carriers enables their culling therefore, controlling and preventing the spread of DUMPS in the population.
Keywords: Autosomal recessive disorder, DUMPS, Holstein Friesian, Pyrimidine nucleotide, Orotic acid


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Review Article 

13.          Fluorosis in cattle - A. H. Ulemale, M. D.Kulkarni, G. B. Yadav, S. R.Samant, S. J.Komatwar and A. V. Khanvilkar
Vet World. 2010; 3(11): 526-527


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