Veterinary World


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Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Original Research

1. Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria - Emmanuella N. Akange, Clara N Kwanashie, Mohammed Bisalla, Nicodemus M Useh and Emmanuel O. Ngbede
Vet World. 2013; 6(2): 64-67

Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii. The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390) serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using a latex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detects the polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species.

Results: Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17%) were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64%) were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002) between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005) in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems.

Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended.

Keywords: cattle, cryptococcus antigens, lateral flow assay, latex agglutination, Nigeria, sera, Zaria.