Veterinary World

 

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916
 

 Home


 Editorial board


 Instructions for authors


 Reviewer guideline


 Open access policy


 Archives


 FAQ


 

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


Review (Published online : 20-09-2013)

1. Genetics of ovulation rate in farm animals - R. Kumar Pramod, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Rohit Kumar and Anju Rajan
Veterinary World, 6(11): 833-838




References


1. Hunter, M.G., Robinson, R.S., Mann, G.E. and Webb, R. (2004) Endocrine and paracrine control of follicular development and ovulation rate in farm species. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 82-83: 461-477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.05.013   PMid:15271473   
 
2. Palma, G.A., Arga�naraz, M.E, Barrera, A.D., Rodler, D., Mutto A.A. and Sinowatz, F. (2012) Biology and Biotechnology of Follicle Development. The Scientific World Journal. 14. doi:10.1100/2012/938138 http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/938138
 
3. Erickson, G.F. and Shimasaki, S. (2003) The spatiotemporal expression pattern of the bone morphogenetic protein family in rat ovary cell types during the estrous cycle. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 1:9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-1-9 PMid:12741959      PMCid:PMC153494
 
4. Webb, R. and Campbell, B.K. (2007) Development of the dominant follicle: mechanisms of selection and maintenance of oocyte quality. Soc. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 64:141-163.   PMid:17491145   
 
5. Campbell, B.K., Souza, C.J., Skinner, A.J., Webb, R. and Baird, D.T. (2006) Enhanced response of granulosa and theca cells from sheep carriers of the FecB mutation in vitro to gonadotropins and bone morphogenic protein-2, -4, and - 6. Endocrinology. 147:1608-1620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2005-0604   PMid:16396991   
 
6. Otsuka, F., McTavish, K.J. and Shimasaki, S. (2011) Integral role of GDF-9 and BMP-15 in ovarian function. Mol. Reprod. Dev.78:9-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.21265   PMid:21226076      PMCid:PMC3051839
 
7. Shi, F.T., Cheung. A.P., Huang, H.F. and Leung, P.C. (2009) Effects of endogenous growth differentiation factor 9 on activin A-induced inhibin B production in human granulosa- lutein cells. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 94(12):5108-5116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-1047   PMid:19846738   
 
8. Yan, C., Wang, P., DeMayo, J., DeMayo, F.J., Elvin, J.A., Carino, C., Prasad, S.V., Skinner, S.S., Dunbar, B.S., Dube, J.L., Celeste, A.J. and Matzuk, M.M. (2001) Synergistic roles of bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 in ovarian function. Mol. Endocrinol. 15: 854-866. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.15.6.854   PMid:11376106   
 
9. Souza, C.J., MacDougall, C., Campbell, B.K., McNeilly, A.S. and Baird, D.T. (2001) The Booroola (FecB) phenotype is associated with a mutation in the bone morphogenetic receptor type 1 B (BMPR1B) gene. J. Endocrinol. 169:R1- R6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.169R001   PMid:11312159   
 
10. Hanrahan, J.P., Gregan, S.M., Mulsant, P., Mullen, M., Davis, G.H., Powell, R. and Galloway, S.M. (2004) Mutations in the genes for oocyte-derived growth factors GDF9 and BMPI5 are associated with both increased ovulation rate and sterility in Cambridge and Belclare sheep (Ovis aries). Biol. Reprod. 70: 900-909. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.103.023093   PMid:14627550   
 
11. Demars, J., Fabre, S., Sarry, J., Rossetti, R., Gilbert, H., Persani, L., Tosser-Klopp, G., Mulsant, P., Nowak, Z., Drobik, W., Martyniuk, E. and Bodin, L . (2013) Genome- Wide Association Studies Identify Two Novel BMP15 Mutations Responsible for an Atypical Hyperprolificacy Phenotype in Sheep. 9:4.
 
12. Vge, D. I., Husdal, M., Kent, M. P., Klemetsdal, G. and Boman, I. A. (2013) A missense mutation in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is strongly associated with litter size in sheep. BMC Genet. 14 (1): 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-14-1   PMid:23280002      PMCid:PMC3546915
 
13. Reader, K. L., Haydon, L.J., Littlejohn, R.P., Juengel J.L. and McNatty, K.P. (2012) Booroola BMPR1B mutation alters early follicular development and oocyte ultrastructure in sheep. Reprod. Fert. Develop. 24, 353-361.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD11095   PMid:22281082   
 
14. Davis, G.H., Balakrishnan, L., Ross, I.K., Wilson, T., Galloway, S.M., Lumsden, B.M., Hanrahan, J.P., Mullen, M., Mao, X.Z., Wang, G.L., Zhao, Z.S., Zeng, Y.Q., Robinson, J.J., Mavrogenis, A.P., Papachristoforou, C., Peter, C., Baumung, R., Cardyn, P., Boujenane, I., Cockett, N.E., Eythorsdottir, E., Arranz, J.J. and Notter, D. R. (2006) Investigation of the Booroola (FecB) and Inverdale (FecXI) mutations in 21 prolific breeds and strains of sheep sampled in 13 countries. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 92:87-96.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.06.001   PMid:15982834   
 
15. Fabre, S., Pierre, A., Mulsant, P., Bodin, L., Pasquale, E.D., Persani, L., Monget, P. and Monniaux, D. (2006) Regulation of ovulation rate in mammals: contribution of sheep genetic models. Reprod. Biol. Endocrine. 4:20:1-12.
 
16. Bodin, L., Di Pasquale, E., Fabre, S., Bontoux, M., Monget, P., Persani, L. and Mulsant, P. (2007) A novel mutation in the bone morphogenetic protein 15 gene causing defective protein secretion is associated with both increased ovulation rate and sterility in Lacaune sheep. Endocrinology. 148(1): 393-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2006-0764   PMid:17038554   
 
17. Monteagudo, L.V., Ponz, R., Teresa, T.M., Lavina, A. and Sierra, I. (2009) A 17 bp deletion in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) gene is associated to increased prolificacy in the Rasa Aragonesa sheep breed. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 110:139-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.005   PMid:18282670   
 
18. Wilson, T., Wu, X.Y., Juengel, J.L., Ross, I.K., Lumsden, J.M., Lord, E.A., Dodds, K.G., Walling, G.A., McEwan, J.C., O'Connell, A.R., McNatty, K.P. and Montgomery, G.W. (2001) Highly prolific Booroola sheep have a mutation in the intracellular kinase domain of bone morphogenetic protein IB receptor (ALK-6) that is expressed in both oocytes and granulosa cells. Biol. Reprod. 64:1225-1235.http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod64.4.1225   PMid:11259271   
 
19. Dong, J., Albertini, O.F., Nishimori, K., Kumar, T.R., Lu, N. and Matzuk, M. (1996) Growth differentiation factor-9 is required during early ovarian folrliculogenesis. Nature., 383: 531-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/383531a0   PMid:8849725   
 
20. Elvin, J.A., Clark, A.T., Wang, P., Wolfman, N.M. and Matzuk, M.M. (1999) Paracrine actions of growth differentiation factor-9 in the mammalian ovary. Mol. Endocrinol. 13: 1035-1048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.13.6.1035   PMid:10379900   
 
21. Yi, S.E., Lapolt, P.S., Yoon, B.S., Chen, Y.Y., Lu, J.K. and Lyons, K.M. (2001) The typeI BMP receptor BMPR1B is essential for female reproductive function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98: 7994-7999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.141002798   PMid:11416163      PMCid:PMC35456
 
22. Sun, R.Z., Lei, L., Cheng, L., Jin, Z.F., Zu, S.J., Shan, Z.Y., Wang, Z.D., Zhang, J.X. and Liu, Z.H. (2010) Expression of GDF-9, BMP-15 and their receptors in mammalian ovary follicles. J. Mol. Histol. 41: 325-332.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-010-9294-2   PMid:20857181   
 
23. Bodensteiner, K.J., Clay, C.M., Moeller, C.L. and Sawyer,H.R. (1999) Molecular cloning of the ovine growth/ differentiation factor-9 gene and expression of growth/ differentiation factor-9 in ovine and bovine ovaries. Biol. Reprod. 60: 381-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod60.2.381   PMid:9916005   
 
24. Silva, J.R.V., Van den hurk, R., Van tol, H.T.A., Roelen,B.A.J. and Figueiredo, J.R. (2004) Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9(GDF9), Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) and BMP Receptors in the Ovaries of Goats. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 70:11-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.20127   PMid:15515056   
 
25. Edson M.A., Nalam, R.L., Clementi, C., Franco, H.L.,DeMayo, F.J., Lyons, K.M. Pangas, S.A. and Matzuk, M.M. (2010) Granulosa Cell-Expressed BMPR1A and BMPR1B Have Unique Functions in Regulating Fertility but Act Redundantly to Suppress Ovarian Tumor Development. Mol Endocrinol. 24(6):1251-1266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2009-0461   PMid:20363875      PMCid:PMC2875809
 
26. McNatty, K.P., Galloway, S.M., Wilson, T., Smith, P.,Hudson, N.L., O'Connell, A., Bibby, A.H., Heath, D.A., Davis, G.H., Hanhrahan, J.P. and Juengel, J.L. (2005a) Physiological effects of major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep. Genet. Sel. Evol. 37 (1): 25-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-37-S1-S25   PMCid:PMC3226263
 
27. Dube, J.L., Wang, P., Elvin, J., Lyons, K.M., Celeste, A.J. and Matzuk, M.M. (1998) The bone morphogenetic protein 15 gene is X-linked and expressed in oocytes. Mol. Endocrinol. 12:1809-1817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.12.12.1809   PMid:9849956   
 
28. Juengel, J.L., Hudsorl, N.L., Heath, D.A., Smith, P., Reader, K.L., Lawrence, S.B., O'Connell, A.R, Laitinen, M.P., Cranfield, M., Groome, N.P., Ritvos, O. and McNatty, K.P. (2002) Growth differentiation factor-9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 are essential for ovarian follicular development in sheep. Biol. Reprod. 67: 1777-1785.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.102.007146   PMid:12444053   
 
29. Bodin, L., Lecerf, F., Pisselet, C., SanCristobal, M., Bib, B. and Mulsant, P. (2003) How many mutations are associated with increased ovulation rate and litter size and progeny of Lacaune meat sheep? in Proc. Workshop 0n Major Genes and QTL in Sheep and goat. Toulouse, France, 8-11, December 2003.
 
30. Glister, C., Satchell, L. and Knight, P.G. (2010) Changes in expression of bonemorphogenetic proteins (BMPs), their receptors and inhibin co-receptor betaglycan during bovine antral follicle development: inhibin can antagonize the suppressive effect of BMPs on thecal androgen production. eproduction. 140 699-712.
 
31. Ten Dijke, P., Korchynskyi, O., Valdimarsdottir, G. and Goumans, M.J. (2003) Controlling cell fate by bone morphogenetic protein receptors. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 211:105-113.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2003.09.016   PMid:14656483   
 
32. Hua, G. and Yang, L. (2009) A review of research progress of FecB gene in Chinese breeds of sheep. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 116:1-9.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2009.01.001   PMid:19201555   
 
33. Davis, G.H. (2005) Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep. Genet Sel Evol. 37(1):S11-S23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-37-S1-S11   PMid:15601592      PMCid:PMC3226262
 
34. Juengel, J.L., Hudson, N.L., Berg, M., Hamel, K., Smith, P., Lawrence, S.B., Whiting, L. and McNatty, K.P. (2009) Effects of active immunization against growth differentiation factor 9 and/or bone morphogenetic protein 15 on ovarian function in cattle. Reproduction. 138(1):107-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-09-0009   PMid:19439562   
 
35. McNatty, K.P., Juengel, J.L., Reader, K.L., Lun, S., Myllymaa, S., Lawrence, S.B., Western, A., Meerasahib, M.F., Mottershead, D.G., Groome, N.P., Ritvos, O. and Laitinen, M.P. (2005b) Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 co-operate to regulate granulosa cell function in ruminants. Reproduction, 129(4): 481-487.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/rep.1.00517   PMid:15798023   
 
36. Reader, K L., Heath, D.A, Lun, S., McIntosh, C.J., Western, A.H, Littlejohn, R.P., McNatty, K.P., Juengel, J L. (2011) Signalling pathways involved in the cooperative effects of ovine and murine GDF9CBMP15-stimulated thymidine uptake by rat granulosa cells. Reproduction. 142:123-131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-10-0490   PMid:21474603   
 
37. Li, H.K., Kuo, T.Y., Yang, H.S., Chen, L.R., Li, S.S.L. and Humang, H.W. (2008) Differential gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes and early embryos. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 103 312-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2006.12.017   PMid:17222994   
 
38. Zhu, G., Guo, B., Pan, D., Mu, Y. and Feng, S. (2008) Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and receptors in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes during in vitro maturation. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 104:275-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2007.02.011   PMid:17368971   
 
39. Martins, F. S., Celestino, J.J.H., Saraiva, M.V.A., Matos, M.H.T, Bruno, J.B., Rocha-Junior, M.C., Lima-Verde, I.B., Lucci, C.M., Bo, S.N. and Figueiredo, J.R. (2008) Growth and differentiation factor-9 stimulates activation of goat primordial follicles in vitro and their progression to secondary follicles. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 20: 916-924.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD08108   PMid:19007556   
 
40. Hosoe, M., Kaneyama, K., Ushizawa, K., Hayashi, K. and Takahashi, T. (2011) Quantitative analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) gene expression in calf and adult bovine ovaries. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol., 9:33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-9-33   PMid:21401961      PMCid:PMC3064654
 
41. Elis, S., Dupont, J., Couty, I., Persani, L., Govoroun, M., Blesbois, E., Batellier, F and Monget, P. (2007) Expression and biological effects of bone morphogenetic protein-15 in the hen ovary. J. Endocrinol. 194: 485-497.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JOE-07-0143   PMid:17761888   
 
42. Crawford, J. L., Heath, D.A., Reader, K.L., Quirke, L. D., Hudson, N.L. and Juengel, J.L. and McNatty, K.P. (2011) Oocytes in sheep homozygous for a mutation in bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B express lower mRNA levels of bone morphogenetic protein 15 but not growth differentiation factor 9. Reproduction. 142: 53-61.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-10-0485   PMid:21474605   
 
43. Chu, M. X., Liu, Z. H., Jiao, C. L., He, Y. Q., Fang, L.,Ye, S.C., Chen, G. H. and Wang, J. Y. (2007) Mutations in BMPR- IB and BMP-15 genes are associated with litter size in Small Tailed Han sheep (Ovis aries). J. Anim. Sci. 85:598-603.  http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-324   PMid:17040942   
 
44. Feary, E.S., Juengel, J.L., Smith, P., French, M.C., O'Connell, A.R., Lawrence, S.B., Galloway, S.M., Davis, G.H and McNatty, K.P. (2007) Patterns of expression of messenger RNAs encoding GDF9, BMP15, TGFBR1, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 during follicular development and characterization of ovarian follicular populations in ewes carrying the Woodlands FecX2W mutation. Biol. Reprod. 77 (6): 990-998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.107.062752   PMid:17715428   
 
45. Young, J.M., Juengel, J.L., Dodds, K.G., Laird, M., Dearden, P.K., McNeilly, A.S., McNatty, K.P. and Wilson T. (2008) The activin receptor-like kinase 6 Booroola mutation enhances suppressive effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), BMP4, BMP6 and growth and differentiation factor-9 on FSH release from ovine primary pituitary cell cultures. J. Endocrinol. 196: 251-261.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JOE-07-0148  PMid:18252948   
 
46. Moradband, F., Rahimi, G. and Gholizadeh, M. (2011)Association of Polymorphisms in Fecundity Genes of GDF9, BMP15 and BMP15-1B with Litter Size in Iranian Baluchi Sheep. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 9: 1179 - 1183.
 
47. Deldar-Tajangookeh, H., Shahneh, A Z, Zamiri M.J., Daliri M., Kohram H. Nejati-Javaremi A. (2009) Study of BMP-15 gene polymorphism in Iranian goats. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 8:2929-2932.
 
48. Cui, H.X., Zhao, S.M., Cheng, M.L., Guo, L., Ye, R.Q., Liu, W.Q and Gao, S.Z (2009) Cloning and expression levels of genes relating to the ovulation rate of the Yunling black goat. Biol. Reprod. 80:219-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.108.069021   PMid:18987334   
 
49. Yuanqing, He, Ma, X., Liu, X., Zhang, C. and, Li, J. (2010) Candidate Genes Polymorphism and Its Association to Prolificacy in Chinese Goats. J Agric Sci. 2:1.
 
50. Nicol, L., Bishop, S.C., Pong-Wong, R., Bendixen, C., Holm Lars-Erik, Rhind, S.M., McNeilly, A.S. (2009) Homozygosity for a single base-pair mutation in the oocyte- specific GDF9 gene results in sterility in Thoka sheep. Reproduction 138: 921-933.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-09-0193   PMid:19713444   
 
51. Polley, S., De, S., Batabya, S., Kaushik, R., Arora, J.S., Chattopadhyay, S., Pan, S., Brahma, B., Datta, T.K. and Goswami, S.L. (2009). Polymorphism of fecundity genes (BMPR1B, BMP15 and GDF9) in the Indian prolific Black Bengal goat. Small. Rumin. Res., 85:122-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2009.08.004
 
52. Polley, S., De, S., Brahma, B., Mukherjee, A., P.V Vinesh., Batabyal, S., Arora, J.S., Pan S., Samanta, A.K., Datta, T.K. and Goswami, S.L. (2010) Polymorphism of BMPR1B, BMP15 and GDF9 fecundity genes in prolific Garole sheep. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42:985-993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-009-9518-1   PMid:20020203   
 
53. Roy, J., Polley, S., De, S., Mukherjee, A., Batabyal, S., Pan, S. Brahma, B., Datta, T.K. and Goswami, S. L. (2011) Polymorphism of fecundity genes (FecB, FecX, and FecG) in the Indian Bonpala sheep. Anim Biotechnol., 22:151-62.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2011.589239   PMid:21774623   
 
54. Xue-qin R., Jian-bin L., Zhi-yong D.U., Cheng QING and Jia-fu WANG. (2009) Diversity of BMP15 and GDF9 Genes in White Goat of Guizhou Province and Evolution of the Encoded Proteins. Zool. Res. 30(6):593-602.
 
55. Wang, Y., Yuanxiao, Li., Nana, Z., zhanbin, W. and Junyan, B. (2011) Polymorphism of exon 2 of BMP15 gene and its relationship with litter size of two Chinese goats. Asian Austral. J. Anim. Sci., 24:7. http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.10432
 
56. Javanmard, A., Azadzadeh, N. and Esmailizadeh, A.K. (2011) Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 genes are associated with increased litter size in fat-tailed sheep breeds. Vet. Res. Commun. 35:157-167.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-011-9467-9   PMid:21327517   
 
57. Kasiriyan, M.M., Hafezian, S.H. and Hassani, N. (2011) Genetic polymorphism BMP15 and GDF9 genes in Sangsari sheep of Iran. Int. Genet. Mol. Biol. 3(1):31-34.
 
58. Yang, C., Zi, X., Wang, Y., Yang, D., Ma, L., Lu, J., Niu, H. and Xiao, X. (2012) Cloning and mRNA expression levels of GDF9, BMP15, and BMPR1B genes in prolific and non- prolific goat breeds. Mol Reprod Dev. 79(1):2.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.21386   PMid:22102530   
 
59. Ghaffari, M., Nejati-Javaremi, A. and Rahimi-Mianji, G. (2009) Lack of polymorphism in the oocyte derived growth factor (GDF9) gene in the Shal breed of sheep. S. Afr.J. Anim. Sci. 39:4.
 
60. Zhang, L.P., Gan, Q.F., Zhang, X.H., Li, H.D., Hou, G.Y., Li, J.Y., Gao, X., Ren, H.Y., Chen, J.B., Xu, S.Z. (2009) Detecting a deletion in the coding region of the bovine bone morphogenetic protein 15 gene (BMP15). J Appl Genet. 50(2):145-8.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03195665   PMid:19433911   
 
61. Mullen, M.P., Hanrahan, J.P., Howard, D.J. and Powell, R. (2013) Investigation of Prolific Sheep from UK and Ireland for Evidence on Origin of the Mutations in BMP15 (FecXG, FecXB) and GDF9 (FecGH) in Belclare and Cambridge Sheep. PLOS ONE. 8:1.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0053172   PMid:23301039      PMCid:PMC3534649
 
62. Takebayashi, K., Takakura, K., Wang, H., Kimura, F., Kasahara, K. and Noda, Y. (2000) Mutation analysis of the growth differentiation factor9 and 9B genes in patients with premature ovarian failure and polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil. Steril., 74:976-979.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0015-0282(00)01539-9
 
63. Kovanci, E., Rohozinski, J., Simpson, J.L., Heard, M.J., Bishop, C.E. and Carson, S.A. (2007) Growth differentiating factor-9 mutations may be associated with premature ovarian failure. Fertil. Steril., 87:143-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.05.079   PMid:17156781   
 
64. Filho, F.L.T., Baracat, E.C.and Lee, T.H. (2002) Aberrant expression of growth differentiation factor9 in oocytes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 87:1337-1344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.87.3.1337