Veterinary World


ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


 Editorial board

 Instructions for authors

 Reviewer guideline

 Open access policy





Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online : 14-07-2013)
A study on bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy farm - V. Bhanu Rekha, L. Gunaseelan, A. Subramanian and Gowry Yale

Vet World. 2013; 6(9): 681-685

Aim: To assess the status of bovine brucellosis in an organized dairy with a past history of Brucella abortions and where Brucella control measures including test and removal, calf-hood vaccination (already present adult animals were not vaccinated), use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures helps in the control of brucellosis in the farm have been implemented for the past four years.

Materials and Methods: A total of 195 samples including 89 blood samples, 89 serum samples and 17 milk samples were collected and analysed by isolation and identification, Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR), Milk Ring Test (MRT), Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and Enzyme Linked Immnuno-Sorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: On analysis, all the 89 blood and 17 milk samples turned out to be negative for culture and PCR. MRT and ELISA tests on all the 17 milk samples and STAT on all the 89 serum samples were also negative. The percent positives for Brucella antibodies in serum samples were 4.5 and 6.7 by RBPT and ELISA, respectively. Of the 17 vaccinated animals, 14 were negative by all the Brucella antigen and antibody diagnostic tests employed. Amongst the three vaccinated animals, one animal was positive by RBPT and I-ELISA and, two animals were positive by I-ELISA alone. On the other hand, of the 72 non-vaccinated animals, 65 were negative by all the diagnostic tests employed, three animals were positive by RBPT and 4 animals were positive by I-ELISA.

Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that a combination of RBPT and I-ELISA can be successfully used for screening for brucellosis when the prevalence is low. Implementation of control measures including test and removal of the affected, calf-hood vaccination, use of semen obtained from a screened bull and general hygienic measures help in the control of brucellosis in the farm.

Keywords: bovine brucellosis, control programmes, diagnostic tests, ELISA, organized dairy farm, RBPT


1. Smits, H.L. and Manzoor Kadri, S. (2005) Brucellosis in India: a deceptive infectous disease. Indian J Med Res. 122:375-384.
2. Mantur, B.G. and Amaranth, S.K. (2008). Brucellosis in India-a review. J. Biosci., 33(4):539-547.
3. Godfroid, J., Saegerman, C. and Wellemansa, V. (2002) How to substantiate eradication of bovine brucellosis when aspecific serological reactions occur in the course of brucellosis testing. Vet Microbiol., 90:461–477.
4. Mu-oz, P., Marín, C.M. and Monreal, D. (2004) Efficacy of several serological tests and antigens for diagnosis of cattle brucellosis in the presence of false positive serological results due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol., 12:141–151.
5. OIE: Bovine brucellosis (2011) In Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. World Organization for Animal Health, Paris, France;1-35.
6. Mantur, B. and Mangalgi, S.S. (2004) Evaluation of conventional Castaneda and lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques for diagnosis of human brucellosis. J.Clin.Microbiol., 42(9): 4327-4328.
PMid:15365036 PMCid:PMC516314
7. Sulima, M. (2009) Serological and molecular detection of Brucella infection in cattle. M.V.Sc. thesis submitted to Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tamil Nadu, India.
8. Bricker, B.J and Hailing S.M (1994) Differentiation of Brucella abortus bv. 1,2 and 4, Brucella melitensis, Brucellaovis and Brucella suis bv 1 by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2660-2666.
PMid:7852552 PMCid:PMC264138
9. Glynn, M.K. and Lynn, T.V. (2008) Zoonosis update- Brucellosis. JAVMA, 233(6):900-908.
10. Hinic, V., Brodard, I., Thomann, A., Holub, M., Raymond miserez and Abril, C. (2009) IS711 –based real-time PCR assay as a tool for detection of Brucella spp. in wild boars and comparison with bacterial isolation and serology. BMC Veterinary Research, 5:22.
PMid:19602266 PMCid:PMC2719624
11. Poester, F.P., Nielsen, K., Samartino, L.E. and Yu, W.L. (2010) Diagnosis of Brucellosis. The Open Vet. Sci. J., 4: 46-60.
12. Manish, K., Puran, C., Rajesh, C., Teena, R. and Sunil, K. (2013) Brucellosis: An updated review of the disease. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 83 (1): 3–16.
13. Leal-klevezas, D.S., Martinez-vazquez, I.O., Lopez- Merino, A. and Martinez-Soriano, J.P. (1995) Single step PCR detection of Brucella spp. from blood and milk of infected animals. J.Clin.Microbiol., 33: 3087-3090.
PMid:8586678 PMCid:PMC228649
14. Morato, P., Queipo-Ortuno, M.I and de DIOS Colmenero, J. (1998) Strategy for optimizing DNA amplification in a peripheral blood PCR assay used for diagnosis in human brucellosis. J.Clin.Microbiol., 36: 2443-2446.
15. Godfroid, J., Nielsen, K. and Saegerman, C. (2010) Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife. Croat Med J. 51: 296-305.Corbel, M.J. (1985) Recent advances in the study of Brucella antigens and their serological cross- reactions. Vet Bull., 55: 927-42.
16. Corbel, M.J. (1985). Recent advances in the study of Brucella antigens and their serological cross-reactions. Vet Bull., 55: 927-42.
17. Butler, J., Seawright, G. and McGivern, P. (1986) Preliminary evidence for a diagnostic Immunoglobulin G1 antibody response among culturepositive cows vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 and challenge exposed with strain 2308. Am J Vet Res 47: 1258- 1264.
18. Chachra, D., Saxena, H.M., Kaur, G. and Chandra, M. (2009) Comparitive efficacy of Rose Bengal plate test, Standard tube agglutination test and Dot ELISA in immunological detection of antibodies to Brucella abortus in sere. J. Bact. Res., 1(3): 030-033.
19. Shafee. M., Rabbani, M., Sheikh, A., Ahmad, M. and Razzaq, A. (2011) Prevalence of bovine Brucellosis in organized dairy farms, using milk ELISA, in Quetta city, Balochistan, Pakistan. Vet Med Int. Article ID : 358950.
20. Trangadia, B., Rana, S.K., Mukherjee, F. and Srinivasan, V.A. (2010) Prevalence of brucellosis and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in organized dairy farms in India. Trop Anim Health Prod. 42(2):203-207.
21. Jacques, I., Olivier-Bernardin, V. and Dubray. G. (1998) Efficay of ELISA compared to conventional tests (RBPT and CFT) for the diagnosis of Brucella melitensis infection in sheep. Vet Microbiol., 64(1):61–73.
22. Hunter, S.B., Bibb, W.F. and Shih, C.N. (1986) Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay with major outer membrane proteins of Brucella melitensis to measure immune response to Brucella species. J Clin Microbiol., 24: 566–572.
PMid:3095364 PMCid:PMC268973
23. Kostoula, A., Bobogianni, H. and Virioni, G. (2001) Detection of Brucella Ig G, IgM and IgA antibodies with ELISA method in patients with Brucellosis. Clin Microbiol Infect., 7 (1): 108.
24. Mai, H.M., Irons, P.C., Kabir, J. and Thompson, P.N. (2012) A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria BMC Veterinary Research, 8:144.
PMid:22920578 PMCid:PMC3482151
25. Matope, G., Bhebhe, E., Muma, J.B., Oloya, J., Madekurozwa, R.L., Lund, A. and Skjerve,E. (2011) Seroprevalence of brucellosis and its associated risk factors in cattle from small holder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Trop Anim Health Prod .43:975-982.