Veterinary World


ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


 Editorial board

 Instructions for authors

 Reviewer guideline

 Open access policy





Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online : 22-06-2013)
8. The study of aerobic bacterial flora of the upper respiratory tract of equines from Jammu and Kashmir region of India
- Irfan Ahmad Mir, Bablu Kumar, Anil Taku ,Najimaana Wani, Farah Naz Faridi, Showkat Ahmad Dar, Sabahat Gazal, Gulzar Ahmad Badroo, Aijaz Ahmad Zargar and Asif Iqbal

Vet World. 2013; 6(9): 623-627

1. Anonymous. (2008) All India Summary Report, 18th Indian Livestock Census, Ministry of Agriculture.
2. Swai, E. S. and Bwanga, S. J. R., (2008) Donkey keeping in Northern Tanzania: socio-economic roles and reported husbandry and health constraints. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 20: 67-67.
3. Chanter, N. (2000) Control of strangles outbreaks by isolation of guttural pouch carriers identified using PCR and culture of Streptococcus equi. Equine Vet. J., 32: 515-526.
4. Rush, B and Mair, T. (2004). Equine respiratory Diseases, Blackwell publishing company.
5. Cowan, S. T. and Steel, K. J. (1974) Manual for the identification of Medical Bacteria Second ed. Cambridge University press, Cambridge, London. Pp. 1-192.
6. Bohra, D. L., Maherchandani, S., Bahura, C. L. and Kashyap S. K. (2008) A comparative study of aerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract of horses and donkeys. Vet. Pract.,9(1): 50-51.
7. Barnham, M., Cole, G., Efstratiou, A., Tagg, J. R. and Skjold, S. A. (1987) Characterization of Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C) from human and selected animal infections, Epidemiol. Infect., 98, 171–182.
PMid:3556444 PMCid:PMC2235236
8. Puthucheary, S.D., Sangkar, V., Hafeez, A., Karunakaran, R., Raja, N.S. and Hassan, H.H. (2006) Rhodococcus equi—an emerging human pathogen in immunocompromized hosts: a report of four cases from Malaysia, Southeast Asian. J. Trop. Med. Public Health., 37 (1):157–161.
9. Manzoor, S., Siddique, M., Sajjad-ur-Rahman and Ashraf, M. Occurrence of Lancefield Group C Streptococcal species in Strangles cases of foals in Punjab, Pakistan (2008) Pakistan Vet. J., 28(1): 17-20.
10. Dessica, F. G., Bojia, E. and Ayele, G. D. (2009) Isolation and identification of aerobic bacterial flora from the upper respiratory tract of donkeys in Central Ethiopia. Inter. J. of App. Res. in Vet. Med., 7 (4): 181-188.
11. Kester, R. M., Lesser, S., Dowad, L. (1993) Bacteria isolated from equine respiratory cultures, Equine Pract., 15: 33-36.
12. Christley, R. M., Hodgson, D. R., Rose, R. J., Wood, J. L. N., Reid, S. W., Whitear, J. K. G, and Hodgson, J. L. (2010) A case-control study of respiratory disease in Thoroughbred racehorses in Sydney, Australia, Equine Vet. J., 33 (3): 256-264.
13. Jannatabadi, A. A., Mohammadi, G. R., Rad, M., and Maleki, M. (2008) Molecular identification of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in nasal swabs samples from horses suffering respiratory infections in Iran. Pak. J. of Bio. Sci., 11(3):68-471.
14. Laus, F., Preziuso, S., Spaterna, A. and Beribe, F. (2007) Clinical and epidemiological investigation of chronic upper respiratory diseases caused by beta haemolytic Streptococci in horses. Comp. Imm. Microbiol. and Infect. Dis.,12: 247-260.
15. Laus, F., Attili, A.R., Cerquetella, M., Spaterna, A., Tesei, B. and Cuteri, V. (2009) Endoscopic findings, microbiological and cytological evaluation of tracheal aspirates in a population of Standardbred horses with poor performances. Vet. Medicina. 54(9): 444–450.
16. Wood, J. L. N., Newton, J. R., Chanter, N. and Mumford, J. A. (2005) Association between respiratory disease and bacterial and viral infections in British racehorses. J. Clin. Microbiol., 43 (1): 120-126.
PMid:15634959 PMCid:PMC540098
17. Boguta, L., Gradzki, Z., Borges, E., Maurin, F., Kodjo, A. and Winiarczyk, S. (2004) Bacterial isolate in foal with upper respiratory infection in Poland, J. Vet. Med. B., 49: 290-297.
18. Quinn, P. J., Carter, M. E., Markey, B. K., Donnelly, W. J. C., Leonard, F. C. (2002) Clinical Vet. Microbiol. Edinburgh, London: Harcourt publishers limited; 1-648.
19. Sweeny, C. R., Holocombe, S. J., Barningham, S. C, Beech, J. M. (1991) Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates from horse with pneumonia on pleuropneumonia and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of the isolates. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass., 198: 839-842.
20. Tesfaye, M., (2004) Aerobic bacterial flora of the respiratory tract in slaughtered Goat in Dire Dawa abattoir, Eastern Ethiopia, AAU, FVM, DVM thesis.
21. Savitha A. (2003) Isolation and identification of bacteria from respiratory tract infection of sheep. MVSc Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangaluru, India.
22. Robins, S. L., Agell, M. and Kumer, U. (1981) Basic Pathology 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 369-420.
23. Fernandes, W. R., Sanches, A., Ramos, M. C. C., Souza, V. R. C. and Coelho, C. S. (2011) Microbiological Findings of Tracheobronchial Washes of Healthy Horses and those with Respiratory Diseases. Ars Veterinaria. 27(2): 073-079.
24. Shigidi, A. M., (1973) Aerobic Micro flora of respiratory tract of camels. Sudan J. of Vet. Sci. and Ani. Husbandry. 14(1): 9-14.
25. Sweeny, C. R., Beech, J., Roby, K. A. W. (1985) Bacterial isolates from tracheobronchial aspirates of healthy donkey's. Am. J. Vet. Res., 46: 2562-2565.
26. Elyas A. H. (1993) Some study on sheep pneumonia of bacterial and fungal origin. Assiut Vet. Med. J., 29: 89-95.
27. Obasi, O. L, Raji, M. A., Adogwa, J., Natala, A. (2001). The effects of climatic factors on the occurrence and gross pathological lesions in bacterial pneumonia of ovine and caprine hosts in Zaria, Nigeria. Global J. of pure and appl. Sci.,7: 57-60.
28. Takai, S., (1997) Epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi infections. A Rev. Vet. Microbiol., 56:167-176.
29. Prescott, J. F. (1991) Rhodococcus equi: an animal and human pathogen. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 4: 20–34.
PMid:2004346 PMCid:PMC358176
30. Racklyeft, D. J. and Love, D. N. (2006) Bacteriology of normal lower respiratory tract of horse and its significance of lower respiratory tract disease. Aust. Eq. Vet. J., 17: 66-75.
31. Kester, R. M., Lesser, S., Dowad, L. (1993) Bacteria isolated from equine respiratory cultures. Equine Pract., 15: 33-36.
32. Ode, H., Hobo, S., Katayama, Y., Niwa, H., Kuwamoto, Y., Yamane, T., Anzai, T. (2007) Cytological and bacteriological observation of tracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from Thoroughbred racehorses with pneumonia associated with transport. J. of Equine Sci., 18(4): 161-165.
33. Cabbasi, E., Cattabiani, F. and Freschi, E. (1975) La flora bacteria della mucosa nasale del cavallo nota A.I Batteri Gram negative. Folia Vet. Lat., 5: 55-92.