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it has plagiarized following article:
Lay, J. R. (2002, January). Management tips to reduce
In Forty-sixth Annual North Carolina Pork Conference.
Pre-weaning mortality in pigs - causes and management -
B. P. Shankar, H. S. Madhusudhan and D. B. Harish
Vet World. 2009; 2(6): 236-239
the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS, 2001)
indicate that the average number of pigs born per sow is 10.9,
of which 10.0 are born alive and only 8.9 are able to survive
until weaning. This results in a 11% pre-weaning mortality
rate. In comparison, NAHMS data from 1990 and 1995 respectively
indicate that the number of pigs born alive was 9.9 and 9.5,
with 8.4 and 8.6 piglets weaned per litter. So, although we saw
a decrease in pre-weaning mortality between 1990 and 1995, we
show a slight increase from 9% to 11% between 1995 and 2000.
Because average litter size has slowly increased, we have been
able to realize a slow increase in the number weaned from 1990,
1995, and 2000; resulting in 8.4, 8.6, and currently 8.9 pigs
weaned per litter. The NAHMS 2000 data indicate that of the 11%
pre-weaning mortality, 52.1% die from becoming crushed by the
sow, 16.7% die from starvation, 11.5% die from “other known
problem”, 9.3% die from scours, 7.4% from “unknown problem”, and
3% from respiratory problems. The majority of pigs are weaned at
17. 2 days of age, with an average of 19.3 days of age.
Pig, Pre-weaning, Management, Sow, Starvation, Scour.