Veterinary World

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916
       
 

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October - 2010


Original Research

1.            Prevalence and significance of haemoparasitic infections of cattle in north- central, Nigeria -

J. Kamani., A. Sannusi., O. K. Egwu., G. I. Dogo., T. J. Tanko., S. Kemza., A. E. Tafarki and D. S. Gbise
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 445-448


The prevalence and significance of hemoparasites of cattle from north-central Nigeria was determined using diagnostic records from Parasitology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) Vom, from May 2006 to April 2008. A total of 637 blood samples from cattle from four states (Plateau, Bauchi, Nasarawa and Kaduna) of Nigeria in anticoagulant were submitted to the laboratory for parasitological diagnosis. Giemsa stained thin blood smears were examined for hemoparasites. Packed cell volume (PCV) for each sample was determined and Hematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT) was used to determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 25.7% was recorded for all samples examined. Babesia bigemina and B.bovis accounted for 16.0%, followed by Theileria mutans (3.1%), Trypanosoma spp (T.vivax and T. congolense) (2.8%), Anaplasma marginale (1.9%), Microfilaria (1.4%). The hemoparasites identified alone or in combination with others had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the mean PCV of infected animals. Similarly, hemoparasites infection in young animals as well as during the dry season resulted in significant (P<0.05) reduction of PCV values. The result of this study shows these hemoparasites are endemic in cattle in the study area which may result in serious disease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition.
Keywords: Prevalence, Significance, hemoparasites, cattle, Nigeria.


 Abstract & References  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.445-448
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Original Research

2.            Safety of moxifloxacin following repeated intramuscular administration in wistar rats - K. A. Sadariya, A. K. Gothi, S. D. Patel, S. K. Bhavsar and A. M. Thaker
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 449-452


Moxifloxacin is a novel fourth generation fluoroquinolone with broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The study was conducted to evaluate the safety of Moxifloxacin (5.0 mg/kg) after repeated intramuscular administration at 24 h interval for 14 days in male and female wistar rats. Hematological (Haemoglobin, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and DLC), blood biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, Total Bilirubin, Total Serum Protein, Serum Albumin, Globulin, Serum Creatinine, Urea, Uric acid and Blood glucose) and histopathological examination of various tissues were carried out in the present study. Male and female animals of any group did not reveal any clinical symptoms and mortality attributable to the 14 days intramuscular administration of Moxifloxacin. The data were compared by unpaired two tail `t` test using Graph Pad Prism (Version 4.00). All above hematological and blood biochemical parameters were found to fluctuate within normal range during treatment period and the mean values were not significantly differ (p < 0.05) from corresponding control values. Moreover, no gross or microscopic changes were found in the liver, kidney, heart, spleen, stomach, intestine and joint cartilages of the treated wistar rats. Results indicate that daily administration of Moxifloxacin for 14 days seems to be safe and well tolerated in rats.
Key words: Moxifloxacin, Wistar rats, Safety study, Fluoroquinolone, Antibiotic, Antibacterial.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

3.            Systemic aspergillosis in emu chicks in an organised farm in Kerala - Sunitha Karunakaran, G. Krishnan Nair, N. Divakaran Nair and M. Mini
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 453-455


Systematic post mortem examination was carried out on seven Emu chicks submitted for disease diagnosis to Clinical Laboratory, District Veterinary Centre, Palakkad. On examination, numerous small greyish white nodules were seen in the lungs, air sacs, kidney and serosal surface of proventriculus. Dark red liver with necrotic areas and dark coloured spleen were the other lesions. Microscopically the lungs revealed granulomas with central areas of caseation surrounded by mononuclear cells and fibroblasts. PAS positive fungal hyphae could be seen in the lesion. Aspergillus fumigatus could be isolated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar from the lesions. This is the first report on the occurrence of systemic aspergillosis in Emus from Kerala.
Key words: systemic aspergillosis, Emu chicks, mycotic pneumonia


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

4.            Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats of Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra - A. U. Sutar, S. B. Kengar, S. S. Patil and M. R. Khan
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 456-457


Helminth parasites of digestive system of goats in Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra were studied during the period January 2009 to December 2009. For these 400 faecal samples of goats from different villages were collected. Out of 400 samples 251 were positive (62.75%). In rainy season, out of 150 faecal samples examined 116 were positive (77.33%), while in winter out of 120 samples examined 73 were positive (60.83%) and in summer out of 130 samples examined 67 were positive (51.53%)
Keywords : Prevalence, Gastrointestinal, Parasite, Goat


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

5.            Prevalence and comparative studies of some major serotype of E.Coli from cattle and buffalo calf scour - A. A. Vagh and R. G. Jani
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 458-459


A study was carried out to find the different serotype of E.coli isolates from the young cattle and buffalo calves affected with calf scours. Different strains of E. coli were isolated from 30 cases of calf scour from both cattle and buffalo calves each. All the isolates of E. coli were typed for ‘O’ antigen. The relationship of serotypes of
E. coli to each case showed that two of the twenty six serotypes were common and appeared most virulent in both the species.
Keywords: Calf scour, E.coli, Serotype, Calves.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

6.            In vitro assessment of bacteriostatic potency of egg yolk immunoglobulin against Escherichia coli - Vikrama P Chakravarthi, K Shanmugasundaram and S. Malmarugan
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 460-462


The present study was carried out in commercial layer chickens to assess the bacteriostatic potency of egg yolk immunoglobulin IgY against food poisoning pathogen. The O antigen of food poisoning pathogen Escherichia coli was prepared and used to immunize commercial layer chickens. The eggs which contain anti-E.Coli IgY was collected on 30 th day of first injection and stored at 4 0 C. The antibacterial IgY was separated by water dilution method (10 times diluted with distilled water, pH 5.0 - 5.5, incubated at 4 0 C for 6 hrs) and purified by 60 % ammonium sulphate. The recovery of IgY was in range of 57-62 %. The pathogens in Tryptic soya broth (approx. 6X108/ ml) were cultured with anti-E.coli IgY @ 20 mg /ml and inhibitory effect was measured in UV spectrophotometer at 550 nm. The resultant growth curve indicated that the application of polyclonal antibodies (Ig Y) on meat could be used to prevent the E.coli food poisoning.
Keywords: Food poisoning, E.coli, Anti- E.coli, IgY, Layer chicken, Immunoglobulin.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

7.            Quantitative assay of arsenic in experimentally intoxicated guinea pigs - Dinesh Kumar, A. K. Srivastava and Sanjiv Kumar
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 463-465


The present investigation was undertaken with an attempt to generate information pertaining to the assessment of arsenic residues in the vital organs like liver, lungs kidneys along with blood and hair as biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure using guinea pigs as experimental animal. For this purpose the guinea pigs were divided into two groups having 5 animals in each group. Group I animals were fed 1% of Arsenic trioxide @ 1 mg/kg body weight through oral gavages daily for 90 days to produce chronic toxicity. Estimation of arsenic residue was carried out on 90th day post administration. In the present study chronic exposure to arsenic resulted in significant enhancement of arsenic residues in the blood, hair, liver, lungs and kidneys with mean values of 57.18, 333.71, 331.96, 95.8 ppb and 272.95 in guinea pigs of chronic toxicity as compared to 3.47, 14.02, 12.94, 2.56 and 5.56 ppb in control, respectively.
Key words: Arsenic, Biomarker, Wet digestion, Tissue Arsenic concentration.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

8.            Effect of PGF2 alpha on oestrus and fertility rate in repeat breeder cows treated with norgestomet-oestradiol - M. Selvaraju and C. Veerapandian
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 466-468


A total of 48 repeat breeder cows were equally divided in to two treatment groups as NOR and NOR-PG and were treated with norgestomet ear implants on day 10 following natural oestrus and a control group. At the time of ear implant insertion, 2 ml of SMB injection was administered intramuscularly to all the cows. The implant was removed after 9 days. Cows in NOR-PG group were injected with 0.98 mg of PGF2a at the time of implant removal. In NOR and NOR-PG groups, AI was done at 48 and 72 hours of implant withdrawal. In control group, cows were artificially inseminated twice at 24 hours interval during natural oestrus. Blood samples were collected at the time of implant insertion and withdrawal in all the treated cows for progesterone assay. There was 100 per cent oestrus response following implant removal in NOR and NOR-PG groups. The conception rate obtain in NOR, NOR-PG and control groups were 43.75, 37.50 and 18.75 per cent, respectively. The overall mean level of progesterone (6.310.32 ng/ml) noticed at the time of implant insertion was significantly reduced to a lower level (1.380.16 ng/ml) by the time of its removal in treated cows. It is inferred that norgestomet–oestradiol alone without PGF2a may be used to augment fertility in repeat breeder cows under field conditions.
Key words: PGF2 alpha, Oestrus, Norgestomet, Oestradiol, Fertility Rate, Repeat Breeder Cows.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

9.            Effect of herbal liver tonic Yakrifit bolus on body weight gain in dairy calves - K. K. Hadiya, K. Ravikanth, Shivi Main and D. Thakur
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 469-470


An experimental field study in approximately, one month old, forty eight Jaffrabadi buffalo calves was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbal Liver tonic formulations on growth and body weight gain. A significant (P<0.05) increase in body weight gain in groups supplemented with herbal formulations Yakrifit (M/s Ayurvet Ltd. Baddi, India) @ 1 bolus/calf/day, was observed in comparision to untreated control. Supplementation of herbal liver tonic products improves liver function, feed assimilation and digestibility of ration ultimately leading to gain in body weight.
Keywords: Liver tonic, Herbal medicine, Growth rate, Liver function, Feed assimilation, Digestibility. Body weight.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

10.          Detection of Mycoplasma capri antibodies in goats of Gujarat state - Ashish Roy, Pankaj Kumar and B. B. Bhanderi
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 471-472


200 serum samples were collected from apparently healthy goats of different age and sex from Anand, Navsari and Valsad districts of Gujarat (India), were screened for mycoplasmal antibodies by slide agglutination test using colored antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. Out of 200 serum samples screened 85 were found to be positive indicating overall seroprevalence of 42.50 percent. The higher prevalence was observed in Navsari district (66.66 %) followed by Valsad (60.66%) and Anand district (32.85 %). The higher incidence in these district could be suggest the endemicity of the disease. Slide agglutination test for mycoplasmal antibodies detection using colored antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. antigen was found to be quick, simple, low cost with ease of application in the field without the need of any specialized training and equipments.
Keywords: Seroprevalence, Goat, Gujarat, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Original Research 

11.          Radiography of unusual foreign body in ruminants - M. A. Semieka
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 473-475


The present study was carried out on 10 animals (6 buffaloes, 3 cattle and one camel).The animals were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University affected by unusual size, type, and location of foreign bodies. Diagnosis and description of the foreign bodies were depend mainly on radiographic examination. Most of the foreign bodies recorded in this study were of metallic origin (needles and nails).These foreign bodies reached to the animals by several routes (ingestion, during surgery) and lodged at various areas of animal tissues (throat, Oesophagus, thoracic cavity, reticulum, udder cistern, stifle region). Surgery was performed in most cases for removal of the foreign bodies.
Keywords: Radiography, Foreign Body, Ruminant, Surgery.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Case Report

12.          Migration of broken hypodermic needle in the cervical muscles of dog - A. K. Sharma, Hemant Kumar, L. L. Dass, Shivendra Kumar and Vinod Kumar
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 476-476


A Spitz bitch of 21/2 years of age was presented in the Department with complaint of anorexia, depression, frothy salivation and distress. However, history of vomition was lacking. The bitch evinced pain on palpation of cervical region. The Radiograph revealed the presence of a linear radioopaque body lodged in the cervical musculature just above the vertebrae. A broken hypodermic needle was retrieved from the cervical musculature just above the last cervical vertebrae, following faulty mode of injection in the cervical region which is not advocated for pets.
Key words: Dog , Hyperdermic needle, Cervical muscle, Spitz.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext
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Review Article

13.          Applications of nanotechnology in Veterinary Medicine - Vikrama P Chakravarthi and N. Balaji
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 477-480


In the recent years the application of nanotechnology in human and veterinary medicine has shown a great progress. Scientists foresee that this progress in the field of nanotechnology could represent a major breakthrough in addressing some of the technical challenges faced by human and veterinary profession. While the great hopes of nanomedicine are disease detection and new pharmaceuticals for humans, veterinary applications of nanotechnology may become the proving ground for untried and more controversial techniques from nanocapsule vaccines to sex selection in breeding. Nanotechnology has the potential to impact not only the way we live, but also the way we practice veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine include disease diagnosis and treatment delivery systems, new tools for molecular and cellular breeding, the security of animal food products, modification of animal waste, pathogen detection, and many more. Existing research has demonstrated the feasibility of introducing nanoshells and nanotubes into animals to seek and destroy targeted cells. These building blocks of nanotechnology are expected to be integrated into systems over the next couple of decades on a commercial basis. This article describes some of the principal areas of nanotechnology currently being undertaken in the world of medicine. The main purposes of this article are to trigger the interest of discoveries of veterinary profession in the field of nanotechnology and to provide a glimpse at potential important targets for nanotechnology in the field of veterinary medicine. Also it is important to mention that because nanotechnology is at a very early stage of development, it may take several years to perform the necessary research and conduct clinical trials for obtaining meaningful results. This tool as it develops over the next several decades will have major implications in veterinary and animal science.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanopharmaceuticals, Diagnostic tools


 Abstract & References  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.477-480
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Review Article

14.          Emerging zoonoses and their determinants - Megha Katare and Manish Kumar
Vet World. 2010; 3(10): 481-484


Zoonotic diseases represent one of the leading causes of illness and death from infectious disease. Worldwide, zoonotic diseases have a negative impact on commerce, travel, and economies. In most developing countries, zoonotic diseases are among those diseases of major public health significance and contribute significantly to an already overly burdened public health system. In industrialized nations, zoonotic diseases are of particular concern for at-risk groups such as the elderly, children, childbearing women, and immunocompromised individuals. The World Health Organization has defined zoonoses as, “diseases and infections naturally transmitted between nonhuman vertebrate animals and humans”, and emerging zoonotic disease as a "zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved or that has occurred previously but shows an increase in incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range". However link between humans and animals with respect to diseases could be framed in many but slightly different ways. Strikingly, 75% of emerging infectious diseases have been identified as zoonotic in origin. Moreover if we could link the emergence of some diseases to animals, for e.g. AIDS then the number would be much higher. These agents have included some that maintain an ongoing reservoir life cycle in animals or arthropods, without the permanent establishment of a new life cycle in humans, as well as some “species jumpers” that derive from an ancient reservoir life cycle in animals but have subsequently established a new life cycle in humans that no longer involves an animal reservoir. Zoonotic diseases require rather different prevention and control strategies than diseases of etiologic agents employing only human-to-human transmission. Determinants discussed above have to be understood and dealt in proper perspective when it comes to the problem of zoonotic diseases. Different section of workers should collaborate their efforts against dreaded diseases, which are affecting mankind and animals and are continuously posing challenges. Multidisciplinary teams of ecologists, mammalogists, ornithologists, and entomologists, as well as physicians, epidemiologists, public health workers and veterinarians should join hands for intensive and sure success
Key words: Zoonosis, Transmission, Emerging diseases, Determinants, Economic Impact.


 Abstract & References  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.481-484
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