Veterinary World

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916
       
 

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December -2010


Original Research

1.            Prevalence of external parasite of poultry in intensive and backyard chicken farm at Wolayta Soddo town, southern Ethiopia - Solomon Mekuria and Elsabet Gezahegn
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 533-538


A cross sectional study was conducted from Nov. 2008 to April 2009 to identify and estimate prevalence of ectoparisites of poultry in intensive and backyard chicken farm at Wolayta Soddo town southern nation nationalities and peoples region of Ethiopia. Three hundred eighty four chickens were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Ectoparasites were collected from different parts of the body including skin scraping from shank. Concomitantly age, sex as well as other risk factors recorded. The study result showed that four genus (lice, flea, mite and tick) and six species of ectoparasites recovered in back yard and none in intensive production system. The prevalence of external parasite infestation in backyard production system were 88% lice, 16.5% flea, 8.1% mite and 9.2% tick. Menopon gallinae 49 (139/284) the most prevalent ectoparasite species followed by Cuclotogaster heterographus 40%(115/284) while Cnemidocoptes mutans 8.1%(23/284) was the least identified. The finding in age group showed that there was a significant difference in prevalence of lice infestation between young and adult chicken (P< 0.05) with odds ratio of 5.2. Where young age group are 5.2 times more likely to be infested with lice than adult ones, where as mite prevalence was significantly different between age group with OR of 2.8, where adult group are 2.8 times more likely to be infested than young. On the other hand, flea and tick weren't significantly different (P>0.05) in both age and sex groups but it needs further study to find plausible explanation. The study indicated that external parasites are highly prevalent in backyard chicken, which is associated with poor hygienic system. There is a need to improve hygiene to increase chicken productivity in the area.
Key words: Chicken, Ectoparasites, Prevalence, Backyard, Intensive, Commercial Poultry Farm, Wolayta Soddo, Hygiene.


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Original Research

2.            Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle in two districts of Somali regional state, Ethiopia - Rahmeto Abebe, Thedrous Fantahun, Mesele Abera and Jemere Bekele
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 539-543


A cross-sectional study aimed at determining the common tick species and their abundance in cattle was conducted in two districts of Somali regional state from October 2008 to March 2009. During the period, a total of 10,055 adult ticks (Ixodidae) were collected from 496 indigenous cattle. Out of the total tick count, 4304 were males and 5751 were females. Eight similar species of ticks that belong to four genera (Amblyomma, Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma) were identified in the two districts covered by the study with a significant (P<0.001) difference in the relative abundance of most tick species between the districts. R. pulchellus was the most abundant tick species in Fafem district (25.41%), followed by B. decoloratus (24.83%) with H. m. rufipes being the least abundant (2.28%). Conversely, the most abundant tick species in Awubere district was B. decoloratus (21.43%) and A. variegatum (4.2%) was the least. A significantly higher (P<0.0001) overall mean tick burden was seen in Awubere than Fafem district. The mean tick burden was found to be independent of age and sex of the animals (P>0.05). An overall male to female ratio of 0.75:1 was also determined showing the dominance of females. In conclusion, eight different species of ticks were found infesting cattle in the study area. Limited scope of awareness regarding the impact of ticks, lack of adequate veterinary infrastructures and absence of tick control strategy are the major factors accountable for the widespread existence of tick species in the area. For that reason, educating pastoral society on appropriate animal husbandry especially regarding to tick control and creating awareness on tick epidemiology would be imperative to minimize the effect of ticks and ultimately to improve the living standards of the pastoral society.
Keywords: Abundance, Awubere, Tick, Ethiopia, Ectoparasite, Blood Parasite, Epidemiology, Tick Borne Disease.


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Original Research

3.            Therapeutic efficacy of AV/UTL/17 in cases of post-partum gynaecological disorders in cows: a field study - Rajiv Walia, K. Ravikanth, Shivi Maini and Divesh Sood
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 544-545


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Original Research

4.            PK-PD modelling of norfloxacin after oral administration in rabbits - B. H. Pavithra, N. Prakash and K. Jayakumar
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 546-548


Norfloxacin posses a wide spectrum of activity, excellent tissue penetration and is rapidly bactericidal at low concentrations and hence an attempt was made to integrate reported pharmacodynamic data with pharmacokinetic data of norfloxacin after oral administration in rabbits to determine its effectiveness against common bacterial pathogens infecting rabbits. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained after a single per oral administration of norfloxacin @ 100mg per kg. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From PK-PD integration, it is observed that norfloxacin is highly effective against gram negative infections caused by Pasteurella multocida (AUC/MIC and Cmax/MIC ratio of 133.5 and 111.5 respectively), its efficacy against Salmonella spp., E. Coli, Shigella spp. and Haemophilus influenza is moderate. However, per-oral administration of norfloxacin is not suitable to contain tested gram positive bacterial pathogens infecting rabbits.
Key words: norfloxacin, oral administration, PK-PD integration, rabbits


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Review Article

5.            Ethnoveterinary practices in India – A review - N SriBalaji and Vikrama P. Chakravarthi
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 549-551


Ethno veterinary practices concern to animal healthcare is as old as the domestication of various livestock species. They comprise belief, knowledge, practices and skills pertaining to healthcare and management of livestock. The Indian subcontinent has rich ethno veterinary health traditions that are the products of decades of experiences. The traditional medicines that are commonly used for animal healthcare can cut down costs considerably. Moreover, they are readily available to the ordinary farmer. The key challenges are to find out the effectiveness and contemporary relevance of these practices. Before the introduction of western medicine, all livestock keepers relied on these traditional practices. This article deals in brief about the traditional ethno veterinary practice methods and its common applications.
Keywords: Ethno veterinary medicine & Plants.


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.549-551
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Review Article

6.            Synergistic effect of vitamin E and selenium in anoestrus cows for improvement of conception rate - O. B. Patil, S. N. Newase, M. D. Kulkarni, G. B. Yadav and M. G. Shisode
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 552-553


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Review Article

7.            Gastric dilation and volvulus syndrome in dog - Ami S. Bhatia, P. H. Tank, A. S. Karle, H. S. Vedpathak and M. A. Dhami
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 554-557


Gastric dilatation and volvulus syndrome (GDV) in dogs is an abnormal accumulation of gastric gas (dilatation), which may be complicated by rotation of the stomach (volvulus) about its mesentric axis. A number of factors, both environmental and host have been implicated in GDV. This syndrome has a variety of effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, metabolic, haemolymphatic-immune, renal and central nervous systems. Clinical signs include distended, painful, tympanic abdomen, retching, unproductive vomiting, hypersalivation, respiratory distress accompanied by varying degrees of shock. Treatment of GDV includes medical and fluid therapy at shock dosages to initially stabilize the patient followed by gastric decompression. Surgical procedure comprises of gastric derotation followed by partial gastrectomy or spleenectomy depending upon gastric or spleenic viability and lastly, permanent right sided gastropexy. Post surgical considerations include frequent small meals instead of one large meal, avoiding vigorous activity immediately after meals and not allowing animal to gorge on water after meals or activities.
Keywords : Gastric Dilatation, dogs, Volvulus.


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Review Article

8.            Heat shock proteins and their clinical implications - M. M. Pathan, A. Latif, H. Das, G. M. Siddiquee and Md J. Z. Khan
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 558-560


Knowledge of the physiological role of heat shock proteins is currently limited; however better understanding of their function and thereby the acquisition of the capacity to harness their power might lead to their use as therapeutic agents and revolutionize clinical practice in a number of areas. Future work is needed to translate the experimental data on the capacity of heat shock proteins to induce tumor protection and immunity to infectious agents into the clinical environment. Approach to cancer vaccine is based on the role of HSP in the presentation of antigens. In several infections and especially autoimmune diseases, the implications of immune responses against HSP are still not properly or fully understood. HSP have clinical significance in conditions such as cardiac hypertrophy, vascular wall injury, cardiac surgery, ischemic preconditioning and ageing.
Keywords: Heat Shock, Protein, Physiology, Therapeutic agent, Vaccine Vehicle, Cancer, Reproduction, Immune system, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Biology.


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Review Article

9.            Molecular basis of post-surgical peritoneal adhesions - An overview - M. N. Vaze, C. G. Joshi and D. B. Patil
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 561-566


Post surgical adhesion development remains a frequent occurrence and is often unrecognized by surgeons. Peritoneal adhesions are the leading cause of pelvic pain, bowel obstruction and infertility. The prevention of adhesion till date is speculative due to lack of understanding of mechanisms involved in adhesion development. Adhesions are proposed to the disorder of wound healing and imbalance between fibrinogenesis and fibrinolysis. The unprecedented advancement in Molecular Biology has led us to identify molecules involved in both wound healing and adhesion development. The role of these molecules in peritoneal biological functions is not well understood. Hypoxia is proposed to be major contributing factor for the development of adhesions. The major mechanisms behind adhesion development are increased fibrinogenesis, reduced fibrinolysis, increased Extra Cellular Matrix deposition, increased cytokine production, increased angiogenesis and reduced apoptosis. Better understanding of these events will make efficient management of adhesions possible.
Keywords: Post surgical adhesions, wound healing, extracellular matrix, TGF, MMP, fibrinogenesis, fibrinolysis.


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Review Article

10.          Nanotechnology and animal health - Shiva Kumar
Vet World. 2010; 3(12): 567-569


Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages of its development, is beginning to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will be revolutionising animal health and medicine.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nutrition, Health, Medicine, Nanobiotechnology


 Abstract  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.567-569
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