Veterinary World

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June - 2010


Original Research

1.    Bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Jimma municipal abattoir, south western Ethiopia: prevalence, cyst viability and its socio-economic importance - Bekele Megersa, Eliyas Tesfaye, Alemayehu Regassa, Rahmeto Abebe, Fufa Abunna
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 257-262


A cross sectional study was conducted during November 2008 to March 2009 to estimate the prevalence of Cysticercosis in animals, Taeniasis in human and estimate the worth of taeniasis treatment in Jimma town. Active abattoir survey, questionnaire survey and inventory of pharmaceutical shops were performed to accomplish the study. Of the total of 500 inspected animals, 22 animals had varying number of C. bovis giving an over all prevalence 4.4% (22/500). Anatomical distribution of the cyst showed that highest proportions of C. bovis cyst were observed in shoulder muscle, followed by tongue, heart and masseter muscle. Of the total of 114 C.bovis collected during the inspection, 49(42.9%) were found to be a live while others (57.0%) were degenerative cyst. Of the total 60 interviewed respondents, 56.7% (34/60) had contracted T.saginata infection, of which, 95% and (5%) cases reported using modern drugs and traditional drugs, respectively. The majority of the respondent had an experience of row meat consumption as a result of traditional and cultural practice. Human Taeniasis prevalence showed significant difference (p<0.05) with age groups, meat consumption, sex and use of spice. Accordingly adult individual (OR=47.4), frequent raw meat consumers (OR=18.4), spice users (OR=7.0) and male (OR=5.0) had higher odds acquiring Taeniasis than children, occasional meat consumer, non spice users and females, respectively. In this analysis there was no significance difference between religion, education status, occupational risks and marital status (p>0.05). An inventory of pharmaceutical shops (pharmacies, drug stores and rural drug vendors) revealed a total of 103,596 adult taeniacidal drug doses worthing a total of 222,706 Eth. Birr (22,270.6 USD) during two years of 2007 and 2008. Vermox and Niclosamide were the most frequently sold drug for the treatment of taeniasis, while Praziquantel was least sold drug. The findings of this study including prevalence of C. bovis, questionnaire survey of taeniasis prevalence and the pharmaceutical shops inventory indicated the importance of Cysticercosis and Taneniasis both in public health and economical aspects. Therefore, due attention should be given to the public awareness and strict routine meat inspection in order to safe guard the public health.
Keywords: Abattoir, C. bovis/Taeniasis, Cattle, Prevalence, Ethiopia


 Abstract & References  PDF Fulltext doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.257-262 l
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Original Research

2.    Ovarian follicular fluid constituents in relation to stage of estrus cycle and size of the follicle in buffalo - M. R. Abd Ellah, H. A. Hussein and D. R. Derar
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 263-267


The goal of the present study was to evaluate the difference in constituent of the ovarian follicular fluid in different stages of the estrus cycle and in medium and large sized follicle and also to evaluate the relation between serum and follicular fluid constituents in cyclic buffalos. A total of 34 clinically healthy buffalo (Bubals bubals), aged 7-10 years, were sent for slaughter in Moesha Abattoir, Assiut province in winter 2009. Blood samples and the whole genital tract of each animal were collected. The stage of the cycle (proestrus n= 8, estrus n= 7, metestrus n= 7 and diestrus n= 12) was determined post mortem. Biochemical analysis of serum and follicular fluid was performed through measuring total protein, albumin, chloride, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea, creatinine levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Results of the present study revealed that during the estrus cycle, only follicular triglyceride, urea, creatinine and phosphorus level showed significant changes. A positive correlation was found between follicular albumin, phosphorus levels and follicular diameter. Total protein, albumin, globulins, glucose, chloride and creatinine were significantly higher in the serum than that in the follicular fluid. Follicular triglyceride level and potassium level were significantly higher than serum level. Follicular LDH activity was higher in large sized follicle than small sized one. Further studies are required to elucidate the relation between concentration of urea and creatinine in the follicular fluid and oocyte viability.
Key words: estrus, buffalo, follicular fluid, serum.


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Original Research

3.    Detection of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Polymerase chain reaction using toxR, tdh and trh genes - Subhashini Nelapati and N. Krishnaiah

Vet World 3(6):268-271  


The levels of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus were estimated in 105 samples (each 35 of fresh water fish, sea fish and mutton) using cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods by amplification of toxR gene for total V. parahaemolyticus, tdh and trh genes for pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Out of 105 samples, 30 (28.6%), 39 (37.1%) samples gave positive results for total V. parahaemolyticus by cultural and PCR methods respectively. Out of 39 samples positive for PCR 6 (5.7%), 28 (26.6%) and 3 (8.6%) were positive for tdh, trh and both tdh and trh respectively.
Keywords: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, PCR,. Gene, Laboratory Technique, Pathogenic Organism.

 

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Original Research

4.    Efficacy of various antiprotozoal drugs on bovine babesiosis, anaplasmosis and thileriosis - Nasreen Akhter, Chamon Lal, Javaid Ali Gadahi, Khuda Bux Mirbahar, and Mohammad Ismail Memon 
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 272-274


The present study was conducted to check out the efficacy of various antiprotozoal drugs on bovine babesiosis, anaplasmosis and theleriosis. 38 buffaloes naturaly infected with anaplasma, babesia and theileria were selected and divided into four groups. Group A (10), B (10), C (08) and D (10) infected with anaplasmosis, babesiosis, theileriosis, and Infected Control (anaplasmosis (4), anaplasmosis + babesiosis (1 each), babesiosis (2) and theileriosis (2) respectively. Group A was further subdivided into A-I (5 animals with pure Anaplasmosis) and A-II (5 animals with mixed infection of Anaplasmosis and Babesiosis). Group-A was treated with a single dose of imidocarb dipropionate (3 mg / kg body weight). In Group A-I one animal recovered completely, 02 moderately while remaining 02 animals did not respond. The later 02 animals recovered completely after additional 02 doses of 4 mg/kg body weight. In case of group A-II complete recovery was recorded in one animal, moderate recovery in three animals while one animal showed no responsel. Group B was treated with Diminazene acceturate (3. 5 mg / kg body weight) administered as a single dose. 6 animals recovered completely, 02 moderately while 02 animals showed no response. Group C was treated with a single dose of Buparvaqune (2.5 mg / kg body weight), complete recovery was recorded in 4 animals, 2 animals showed no response, while 2 animals with severe infection died after 24 hrs. .
Keywords: Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis, drug efficacy, buffalo


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Original Research

5.    Induced aflatoxin and carbon tetrachloride toxicity on gravid uterus of rabbits – A patho-morphological study - Panchakshari Sankh, K. J. Ananda and B. H. Manjunatha Prabhu
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 275-276


Uterus of the pregnant rabbits, treated with aflatoxin showed resorption of foetuses. Histologically, extensive haemorrhages in the endometrial and parametrial areas and presence of extensive fibrosis of mucosa and musclaris were observed. In combined treatment with aflatoxin and carbon tetrachloride resorption of foetuses was noticed. Hyperplastic or metaplastic changes of lining epithelium of the endometrial mucosa was observed. The lining epithelium usually was that of cuboidal type. Multiple haemorrhages in the submucosa were observed. In pure carbon tetra chloride treatment, there was no resorption of foetuses, but extensive fibroblastic proliferation in uterine muscularis and as wall as periglandular and interstitial proliferation of fibroblasts in the endometrium were seen.
Key words: Pregnant rabbits, Aflatoxin, Carbon tetrachloride, Uterus


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Original Research

6.    Effect of temperature and storage time on hepatobiliary enzyme activities in goat serum - P. D. Divya and K.K. Jayavardhanan
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 277-279

 

The present study was designed and conducted to choose an ideal storage condition for goat sera samples meant for the assay of hepatobiliary enzymes such as, alanine aminotransferases(ALT), aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyltran-sferases (GGT) by storing at room temperature, 4 C and -20 C up to 14 days. Gamma glutamyltransferase was found to be the most stable enzyme in all the three storage conditions through out the study period. Alanine aminotransferase was stable only up to 8 days at 4 C whereas marked stability was noticed at -20 C and room temperature as long as 14 days. Aspartate aminotransferase was more stable at -20 C up to14 days and 11 days at 4 C whereas at room temperature only 2 days. Alkaline phosphatase showed great variation upon storage as compared to other hepatobiliary enzymes and it is suggested that its estimation should be performed in fresh serum samples to get a more accurate result. From these results it is therefore advisable to consider stability of each serum hepatobiliary enzymes for different animals separately before preserving sera samples to get more valid and reliable result.
Key words: storage stability, crossbred goats, hepatobiliary enzymes


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Original Research

7.    Effect of dietary supplementation of shatavari (Asparagus racemosus wild) on heamatobiochemical parameters of broilers - D. H. Rekhate, Smita Ukey, Leena N. Mangle and B. S. Deshmukh
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 280-281

 

Eighty, day old straight run commercial broilers chicks were randomly distributed into four groups (T1, T2, T3 and T4) of two replications having ten chicks in each, reared on deep litter system upto 8 weeks of age. The chicks in all the treatment groups were fed basal diet T1 control and T2, T3 and T4 groups were fed basal diet + 0.5, 1.00 and 1.5 per cent Shatavari root powder (SRP) respectively. Significant (P<0.01) improvement in live body weight of broilers was observed between the treatments. Better FCE was observed with the increase in SRP. The digestibility of protein found significantly (P< 0.01) better with higher inclusion level of SRP. Hb, total serum protein, albumin and globulin revealed significant (P< 0.01) variation between the treatments. It was concluded that supplementation of Shatavari root powder at 0.5, 1.00 and 1.5 per cent level improves growth performance and general health status of broilers however, 1.0 per cent level could be more economical.
Key words: broilers, Shatavari, haematobiochemical.


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Original Research

8.    Epidemiology of canine mammary gland tumours in Gujarat - M.A. Dhami, P.H. Tank, A.S. Karle, H.S.Vedpathak and A.S.Bhatia
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 282-285


Last three years’ (2006-2009) retrospective information was retrieved by scrutinizing the data bank of the College Hospital. During this period 8337 canine cases were registered. Amongst them 2070 cases were referred to Department of Surgery for further surgical treatment. Out of 2070 canine cases, 158 cases (7.63 %) had various neoplastic condition and amongst them 63 cases (39.87 %) were of mammary gland tumours. The overall incidence of canine mammary gland tumours was 0.75 per cent of the total canine cases. The highest occurrence of canine mammary tumour cases was found in the dogs aged 8 to 12 years (49.21 %) followed by those aged 4 to 8 years (33.33 %). It was least (4.76 %) in youger dogs less than 4 years and intermediate (12.70 %) in older dogs above 12 years of age. Breed-wise higher occurrence was found in German Shepherd and Pomeranian as compared to other breeds.
Key words: Canine, Mammary tumour, Epidemiology, Age and Breed effect.


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Original Research

9.    Influence of ovarian side and initiation time of first aspiration with relation of transvaginal follicular aspiration in HF x Sahiwal cows - V. S. Suthar, R. G. Shah, S. P. Singh, R. Kasiraj and A. J. Dhami
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 286-288


This study was carried out to observe the influence of ovarian side and initiation time of first aspiration during OPU programme in HF X Sahiwal cows. Eight cows were randomly divided in to two groups (A and B) each consisting of 4 donors. Follicular aspiration was initiated on day 4 (first follicular wave) and day 13 (second follicular wave) of estrous cycle, respectively. From group-A donors, total 200 follicles were aspirated in eight sessions with a mean of 6.25 2.05 per animal per session of which 52.50 (105/200) and 47.50 (95/200) per cent follicles were from left and right ovary, respectively. The mean numbers of small, medium and large follicles aspirated were 2.06 0.87, 2.65 0.88 and 1.53 0.91 with the recovery rate of 33.0 (66/200) (3–5 mm), 42.50 (85/200) (6–9 mm) and 24.50 (49/200) (=10 mm) per cent, respectively. From group-B donors, total 179 follicles were aspirated of which 48.60 (87/179) and 51.40 (92/179) per cent follicles were from left and right ovary, respectively. The mean number of aspirated follicles per cow per session from group-B donor cows was 5.59 1.03 and the mean numbers of small, medium and large follicles aspirated 1.87 0.96, 2.5 0.66 and 1.25 0.64 with the recovery rate of 34.07 (61/179), 44.94 (80/179) and 21.22 (38/179) per cent, respectively. The number of follicles from left and right ovaries of different categories among group A and B donor cows did not differ significantly (P>0.05). This study showed that there cows no any influence of ovarian side and initiation time on follicular aspiration.
Keywords: Ovary, Transvaginal Follicular Aspiration, Follicle, Reproductive organ.


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Original Research

10.    Effect of sunflower cake inclusion on certain blood biochemicals of Japanese quails - D. H. Rekhate, V.M. Patil, Leena N. Mangle and B. S. Deshmukh
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 289-290


A week old 120, Japanese quail chicks were equally and randomly distributed into four different treatment groups (T0, T1, T2 and T3), of three replicates having 10 chicks in each. All the chicks were reared on saw dust litter upto six weeks of age. The chicks in control group-T0 were fed corn-soya based diet with multi- enzyme and group T1, T2 and T3 were fed on diets containing 10, 20 and 30 per cent replaced soybean cake by sunflower cake with multi-enzyme supplementation, respectively. The significant (P< 0.01) differences were noticed between the treatments for weekly live body weights upto sixth week. The blood-biochemicals viz., serum glucose, serum total protein and serum cholesterol level did not varied significantly. It was concluded that inclusion of sunflower cake do not have any adverse effect on blood-biochemical parameters however supplementation of multi-enzyme improves numerically the growth performance of Japanese quails.
Key Words: Japanese quails, Sunflower cake, Multi-enzyme, Blood-Biochemical profile.


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Original Research

11.  Effect of different management system on haemato-biochemical profile in quail - Vijay Kumar, R.K. Verma, Satish Kumar, S.K. Singh and Ramesh Kumar Singh
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 291-292


A very little information is available in literature on management of Japanese quail (Couturnix Couturnix Japonica) in different housing system (cage system and deep litter system) of management. The average weekly body weight gain was significantly higher in deep litter system (340.43gm) than cage (12.710.41gm) system at the 3rd week of age. The average daily feed consumption by individual quails was higher in cage (12.712.10) than deep litter system (11.841.47) during 0-6 weeks of age. The haematobiochemical profile viz Hb (gm%),TEC (106/l ),PCV(%),TLC(103/ l)along with biochemical studies as blood sugar (mg/dl), total serum protein (gm/dl),serum calcium (mg/100ml) and serum phosphorus (mg/dl) were well within the normal health of quail under both cage and deep litter system of management.
Keywords: Management System, Quail, Hemato-biochemical profile, Cage sytem, Deep Litter system.


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Original Research

12.  Treatment of post partum anestrous in Osmanabadi goats with Janova - A. D. Patil, D.S. Raghuwanshi, K. Ravikanth and Shivi Maini 
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 293-294

 

The present study was conducted in a flock of Osmanabadi Goats reported with the history of post-partum anestrous. The experimental goats were selected from Goat farm unit, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Udgir, Maharashtra, India. A total of 20 Osmanabadi Goats were divided into two equal groups (I & II), (n=10). Group-I served as untreated control group. Group II were administered orally with caplet Janova@2 cap/day/goat for three days. The efficacy of treatment in group II was 80 percent (%) induction of oestrus within 96.37 ? 1.40 hrs and 62.50 % conceived with 1.8 services per conception whereas in control group I 30% oestrus was observed within 185.5 ? 10.89 hrs and 33.33 % conceived with 3.00 services per conception. It may be concluded that administration of polyherbal formulation Janova has lead to induction of fertile post partum oestrus and higher conception rate in Osmanabadi goats.
Key words: herbal, heat inducer, anestrous, Osmanabadi goat


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Case Report

13.  Ethno-veterinary drug therapy for ear mange in sheep - S. D. Hagawane, G.R.Rajurkar and S.B.Shinde 
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 295-296


Sheep from two flocks showed scab lesions around nostrils, eyes and on the face with facial alopecia and thickening of the skin. The case was confirmed as ear mite (Psorcopt ovis) by microscopic examination of skin scrapings. Percent incidence in flock I and Flock II recorded was 12.5, 11.4 respectively. Affected sheep were divided into two groups each containing nine animals. Group I was treated with preparation containing 50ml Azadirachta indica oil, 50ml Pogamia pinnata oil, 25gm Camphor, 50gm Sulphur powder and 500ml coconut oil applied on an affected skin twice a day for 15 days and Group II treated with preparation having 50gm of Curcuma longa rhizome and 25gm of Azadirachta indica oil applied once a day for 15 days. The first preparation was found highly effective against ear mange in sheep. It was found to be very convenient for use in field conditions, did not cause any adverse reaction locally as well as systemically.
Keywords: Ethnoveterinary, Ear mange, Sheep, Drug, Therapy.


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Review Article

14.  Gallinacin and fowlicidin: two promising antimicrobial peptides in chickens—A review - C. S. Mukhopadhyay, Ravi Kumar and G. S. Brah 
Vet World. 2010; 3(6): 297-300


Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) which have been identified in almost all groups of organisms, are the small cationic molecules that recognize the pathogen associated molecular patterns of the microbes. In chicken two main AMPs that play significant roles in bolstering the innate immunity are gallinacins and fowlicidins, which are the functional analogues of the mammalian beta-defensins and cathelicidins. Gallinacin identifies the Gram negative bacteria while fowlicidin exerts broad spectral activity. The basic mechanism of action is by far similar in both groups of AMPs. The ‘docking sites’ of these antimicrobial peptides includes the “lipid A” moiety of lipo polysaccharides, lipo-teichoic acids, anionic membrane phospholipids on bacterial surfaces. These AMPs block the DNA replication and protein synthesis in bacteria causing death of the microbe. Researchers have identified reproducible molecular markers of those peptides for selection of disease resistant stock of chickens.
Key words: Gallinacin, Fowlicidin, Antimicrobial peptides, Chicken, Innate immunity.


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