Veterinary World

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July - 2010


Original Research

1.    A survey of occurrence of toxogenic fungi and mycotoxins in pig feed samples-Use in evaluation of risk assessment - Dragan Milicevic, Miomir Nikšic, Tatjana Baltić, Danijela Vranic, Srdan Stefanovic, Saša janković
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 305-311


In order to assess of risk assessment, the aim of this paper was to provide good and detailed insight into the level of contamination of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine from mycotoxin-producing fungi and mycotoxins (n=18). Isolation and quantitative enumeration of fungal propagules were done on solid media using the standard microbiological procedure. These plates were incubated the number of colonies was determined and thent on the basis of characteristic colonies and microscopic analysis was performed to identify genera and species of moulds. Isolates identified as Aspergillus and Penicillium species were subjected to molecular characterization of the presence of genes responsible for the synthesis of OTA (polyketide synthase gene-PKS). Total fungal counts (CFU/g) ranged from 0,5x105 do 4x106. From a total samples analysed, seven samples had fungal counts higher than the limit established by Serbian regulations (3x105). During a mycological analysis of complete feedmixes intended for fattening swine, a total of six genera and 14 species of moulds were identified of which the most frequent one was of the genus Penicillium (94,4%) while the moulds from Fusarium genere isolated in 55,5% and Paecilomyces in 44,4% of the samples from investigated localities. Other fungi from the genera Aspergillus (22%), Mycor (11,1%) and Alternaria (5,5%) were represented in a less amount. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a set of 18 isolates of the DNA belonging to families Penicillium and Aspergillus. The sequences of PCR reaction products in three samples were compared with nucleotide sequences of genes for poliketid synthase (PKS) from Penicillium species and found that the samples possess PKS sequence. The traditional methods for identification of ochratoxin-producing fungi are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Rapid and specific detection of ochratoxin-producing fungi is important for ensuring microbiological quality and safety of feed and food.
Key words: Moulds, Mycotoxin, Feed Stuff, PCR, Risk assessment, Porcine, Occurrence, Toxogenic


╗ Abstract & References ╗ PDF Fulltext ╗ doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.305-311
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Original Research

2.    Chemical and biochemical characterization of Taenia hydatigena cysticerci in goats - S. Nath, S.Pal, P.K.Sanyal, R.C.Ghosh and S.Mandal
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 312-314


The present study was undertaken to study the chemical, biochemical profiles of the cystic fluid of Cysticercus tenuicollis and to assess the pathological changes in the affected organ. Cysts were collected aseptically from the goat carcasses and were subjected to different chemical and biochemical test. Twenty four cyst among them were analyzed for different chemical and biochemical constituents present in their cystic fluid. Showing results as Calcium (12.0-260.0 mg/100ml), Sodium (130.5-424.3 ppm) and Potassium (12.50-52.50 ppm) and biochemicals like Aspartate aminotransferase (0.1310-23.00 U/L), Alanine aminotransferase (1.000-86.17 U/L), Lactate dehydrogenase (10.00- 108.0 U/L) and Alkaline phosphate (18.00-176.0 U/L).
Keywords: Cysticercus tenuicollis, Cystic fluid, Histopathology, Zoonosis, Biochemical parameter, Chemical parameter.


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Original Research

3.    Biochemical changes in goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs - Sachin Jain and Y.P. Sahni
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 315-317


The present study was undertaken to assess the biochemical changes in goats treated with anthelmintic indigenous herbs. The analysis of data was done in 18 goats, irrespective of age, sex and breed. The experimental goats were randomly divided in six groups. The effect of crude powder and cold aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, Swertia chirata and Piper longum was studied on various biochemical parameters, i.e., Blood glucose, Total protein, Albumin and Globumin. Significant increase was noticed in the level of blood glucose, serum total protein and albumin.
Keywords: Anthelmintic, Biochemical, Nigella sativa, Swertia chirata, Piper longum, Goat.


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Original Research

4.    The comparative effects of synthetic choline and herbal choline on hepatic lipid metabolism in broilers - G.R.Gangane, N.Z. Gaikwad, K.Ravikanth and S.Maini

Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 318-320


An experiment of 0-42 days in day old 150 Vencobb broiler chickens was conducted to determine comparative effects of synthetic choline and herbal sources of choline on hepatic lipid metabolism in broilers. Birds were randomly distributed into three groups (T0- T2), one untreated control and two treatments. Chicks in Group T0 were given feed without any additional source choline chloride. Chicks of Group T1 were fed with feed mixed with herbal product (Repchol supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India) @ 500gm/tonne of feed and T2 was given combination of synthetic choline chloride@1kg/tonne (60%) and biotin @ 150 mg/ton of feed. To study the effect of inclusion of herbal sources of choline and synthetic choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were estimated on day 21st and 42nd of experimental study. Gross pathological changes in liver were recorded on representative birds per group at the end of the study. It was recorded that inclusion of either synthetic choline or herbal source of choline exerted a hypocholesterolemic effect and also decreased the level of triglycerides as compared to untreated control thus minimizing the incidence of fatty liver, however the two treatment do not differ significantly. Gross pathological study also revealed no significant changes in the architecture of liver as compared to control. It can be concluded that the herbal supplements can successfully replace their synthetic analogues from broiler ration.
Key words: Broiler chickens, Hepatic, Synthetic choline, Herbal, Lipid Metabolism.


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Original Research

5.    Seasonal incidence of caprine gastrointestinal nematodosis - Amrita Singh, G.C.Hazarika, A.Phukan and P.Hussain
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 321-322


A total of 157 goats, irrespective of sex, breed and age from an organized farm were screened for gastrointestinal nematode infection for a period of one year i.e. from February 2006 to January 2007. Occurrences of G.I. nematodes in different age group were also studied. The goats below 1 year were found to carry significantly higher nematode burden than the goats of 1-3 years and above 3 years of age. In strongyle groups, the parasites were recorded as Haemonchus, Oesophegastomum, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Bunostomum and Cooperia. Prevalence of Strongyle infection was higher in monsoon season in goats below one year of age. Non-occurrence of Trichuris spp in winter season was also recorded. Ivermectin @ 10 mg/30 kg. Body weight orally as single dose was found to be most effective for treatment of gastrointestinal nematodosis.
Keywords: Nematode, Gastro-intestinal, Haemonchus, Oesophegastomum, Trichuris, Ivermectin, Helminth.


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Original Research

6.    Effect of induced hypothyroidism on plasma cholesterol and bilirubin in marwari sheep - Barkha Gupta, Anil Moolchandani, Meenaxi Sareen
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 323-325


Hypothyroidism was induced in Marwari adult sheep (9 rams) by thiourea feeding (@ 50 mg/kg body weight). The blood samples were collected and analysed on 0 (control), 3rd, 5th and 7th day of thiourea feeding. The investigation was carried out to study the effects of induced hypothyroidism on plasma cholesterol and billirubin in Marwari sheep. Plasma cholesterol showed a non-significant (P > 0.05) effect of induced hypothyroidism however, it increased gradually with the subsequent phases of induced hypothyroidism. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a significant (P?0.01) increase in plasma bilirubin concentration during different phases of induced hypothyroidism in our study. Thus, Hypercholesterolemia and Hyperbilirubinemia are the salient clinical and biochemical features of induced hypothyroidism.
Keywords: Hypothyroidism, Sheep, Cholesterol, Plasma.


╗ Abstract & References ╗ PDF Fulltext ╗ doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.323-325
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Original Research

7.    In vitro investigation of anthelmintic activity of Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. (Rubiaceae) - Vishal B. Badgujar and Sanjay J Surana
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 326-328


In the present study anthelmintic activity of Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. (Rubiaceae) stem-bark was performed in vitro against earthworms. Methanol extract of dried stem-bark was used for the study. The methanolic extract of M. parvifolia stem bark at the concentration of 100 mg/ml produced significant anthelmintic activity, whereas 20 mg/ml lower concentration did not produce significant results when compared with standard (P<0.01). The result of anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract produced were evaluated by observing paralysis time and death time of earthworms and were found to be dose dependent. This finding proves usefulness of stem-bark as a anthelmintic drug.
Keywords: Mitragyna parvifolia, Rubiaceae, Anthelmintic activity


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Original Research

8.    Effect of pine-apple pulp on sensory and chemical Properties of burfi - Kapila Kamble, P.A.Kahate, S.D.Chavan and V.M. Thakare
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 329-331


Burfi is a popular khoa based confection and it’s contain considerable amount of milk solids. The manufacture of value added products by using seasonal fruit like pineapple. The present investigation shows that, the overall acceptability of the pineapple pulp Burfi prepared with 15 per cent pineapple pulp in treatment T4 (93.53) was highest and superior. Treatment T4 was more acceptable than all treatments in flavor, body texture and colour and appearance. The chemical composition of Burfi was affected due to addition of pineapple pulp to the fat, protein, total solids, moisture and ash.
Key words: Pineapple pulp, Burfi, Sensory quality, Milk Product.


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Case Report

9.    Dystocia in mare due to fetal Postural defect - D. B. Bhoi, D. N. Suthar, J. J. Parmar and J. B. Patel
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 332

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Case Report

10.  Management of recurrent rectal prolapse in a leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) - Tapan Kumar Pattanaik and Subharaj Samantara
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 333-334

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Case Report

11.  Arthrogryposis in a calf - V.Devi Prasad, N.V.V.Hari Krishna, Sreenu M and R.Thangadurai
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 335-336

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Case Report

12.  Carapace fracture in a turtle - A case report - Nisha Joy, S.K. Jhala, Mehraj U Din Dar, Roon Mathai, A.M. Patel, D.B.Patil, N.H. Kelawala, P.V. Parikh and D.O.Joshi
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 337-338

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Case Report

13.  Removal of dermoid cyst in a German shepherd dog - S. K. Jhala, Nisha Joy, D.B. Patil, P.V. Parikh, N.H. Kelawala and A.M. Patel
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 339

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Review Article

14.  Canine pyometra - Rubina Kumari Baithalu, Biswa Ranjan Maharana, Chinmoy Mishra, Laxminarayan Sarangi and Lipismita Samal
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 340-342

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Review Article

15.  Understanding and exploiting the T - cell memory - Kshipra Chandrashekhar, Ajit Singh, Archana Sharma and Rajkumari Sanjukta
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 343-345


Immunological memory is one of the lesser understood aspects of adaptive immunity which protects organisms from recurrent and persistent attack by pathogens. The central event in the generation of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses is the activation and clonal expansion of T cells. T cell activation is initiated by interaction of the TCR-CD3 complex with processed antigenic peptide bound to either a class I (CD8+cells) or class II (CD 4+cells) MHC molecule on the surface of antigen presenting cell (APC). On interaction of a na´ve T cell with the processed antigen initiates a cascade of events which activates the resting T cell to enter the cell cycle, proliferating and developing into a clone of progeny cells, which differentiate into memory or effector T cells. Memory T cells are generated by antigen interaction and remain long but quiescent in nature, however responding with greater reactivity to a subsequent challenge with the same antigen, generating a secondary response. Memory cells, though in the G0 stage of the cell cycle require a lower level of activation than so na´ve cells. A lot of work in this direction can yield a whole lot of interesting findings which will help us develop better vaccines for chronic animal diseases like Tuberculosis, Johne’s disease using suitable animal models. A better understanding of these issues may lead to improvements in the design of vaccines which can be used to generate potent protective T cell memory against pathogens. In the present article various properties of memory T cells along with their implications to vaccine development have been reviewed.
Key words: Effector T cells; Memory T cells; CD4+ cells; CD8+ cells; T cell vaccines


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Review Article

16.  Sex preselection in domestic animals - current status and future prospects - Srinivasa Prasad, Ch., S.Rangasamy and S.Satheshkumar
Vet World. 2010; 3(7): 346-348


Sex preselection is a subject that has held man’s attention for generations. The most effective way to achieve sex predetermination is to resolve X and Y chromosome bearing sperm populations. One of the most reliable methods of sorting spermatozoa is flow cyto-fluorimetric analysis, which is based on the difference in the DNA content of the X and Y sperm populations. The difference in the DNA content between X and Y spermatozoa of mammals range from 3.5 to 4.2 per cent. Sorting of variable spermatozoa by flow cytometer have been improved over time and the sorting rate with the recent high speed cell sorter is about 11 million sperms of each sex per hour with purity of 90 per cent. Sort re-analysis enables the laboratory validations of the purity of the sex-sorted spermatozoa. Cryo-preservation of the sorted spermatozoa has also been successful without affecting the viability and fertility. Sexed semen has a wide range of applications in animal breeding by increasing the selection pressure for replacement females and in providing more number of female offspring for progeny testing of breedable males consequently increasing the accuracy of selection. Moreover use of sex-sorted semen will also help in the conservation of endangered species. Development of the instrument for increasing the sorting rate and also purity of sorting without affecting the viability and fertility is still an active area of research.
Key words: Sex preselection, Spermatozoa, Fertilization, Domestic animal, Chromosome.


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