Veterinary World

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916
       
 

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September - 2010


Original Research

1.            Bovine mastitis: prevalence, risk factors and major pathogens in dairy farms of Holeta town, central Ethiopia - B. Mekibib, M. Furgasa, F. Abunna, B. Megersa, A. Regassa
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 397-403

 

A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2008 to April 2009 to estimate prevalence of mastitis and to see associated bacterial pathogens in lactating dairy cows in Holeta town. A total of 107 cross bred milking cows were tested using California Mastitis Test (CMT). Prevalence of mastitis at cow level was 71.0% (76/107), out of which 22.4% (24/107) and 48.6% (52/107) were clinical and subclinical, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 44.9% (192/428); from this the clinical and subclinical forms were 10.0% (43/428) and 34.8% (149/428), respectively. Out of the 43 quarters with clinical cases, 31 had blind teats while 12 of them revealed active cases of mastitis. Samples from all 12 active clinical cases and 90.0% (134/149) of the CMT positive subclinical quarters were found to be culture positive. From 146 culture positive samples, a total of 153 bacteria were isolated, the most prevalent being S. aureus (47.1%) followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (30.1%). Other bacterial isolates included Streptococcus (7.2%), E.coli (4.6%), Micrococcus species (3.3%), Klebsella pneumonae (3.3%), Enterobater aerogen (1.3%), Corynebacterium species (2.0%) and Bacillus (1.3%). Risk factors analysis revealed that prevalence significantly differed with the age (P < 0.05), parity (P < 0.05) and udder hygiene condition (P < 0.03). Thus, prevalence was relatively higher in adult cows (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.15, 3.64), cows with moderate calves (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.6), cows with injured teat (OR = 7.7, 95%CI = 0.9, 64.1) and cows with unwashed udder (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 0.8, 6.4) than those corresponding animals. In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of mastitis and associated bacterial pathogen in the study area.
Key words: Bovine mastitis; prevalence; risk factors; major pathogens; central Ethiopia


 Abstract & References ╗ PDF Fulltext╗ doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.397-403
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Original Research

2.            Using of PCR assay for identification of Helicobacter species in hens' eggs - Karima Galal, Abdel Hameed, Farouk Amin Wallaa
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 403-407

 

The prevalence of Helicobacter Species in hens' eggs sold in Assiut and Qena cities, Egypt was determined. A total of 300 hens' eggs were collected from poultry farms and farmers, houses from both cities in which every 5 eggs were represented as one egg pooled sample. Each of egg shell and content was subjected to procedures of isolation of Helicobacter Species followed by PCR assay for the 16S rRNA gene for identification. The obtained results revealed that H. pylori recorded as the highest percentage of contamination (23.33%) followed by H. pullorum (20%). Contamination of egg shells (18.3%) and contents (11.6%) in farmer's houses was higher than poultry farm ones, concluding that egg shell was more subjected to contamination with Helicobacter Species than egg content. All H. pylori and H. pullorum isolates were confirmed by PCR by detection of one PCR product on agarose gel at 109 bp in case of H. pylori and at 477 bp in case of H. pullorum that corresponding to 16S rRNA region of the gene, confirming the specificity of PCR assay for identification of both strains. Regarding the in vitro susceptibility testing, it was found that both strains were sensitive to almost antibiotic used except for ceftriaxone and Sulphamethoxazole +Trimethoprim.
Key words: Eggs, Helicobacter spp., Antimicrobial susceptibility, PCR


 Abstract & References ╗ PDF Fulltext╗ doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.403-407
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Original Research

3.            A study on the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in farmed dairy cattle in Himachal Pradesh - Aneesh Thakur, Mandeep Sharma, Vipin C. Katoch, Prasenjit Dhar, R. C. Katoch
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 408-413

 

A study was conducted on 440 dairy cattle in six organized dairy farms in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India using tuberculin skin testing (TST) to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. An overall animal prevalence of 14.31% (63 of 440 animals) and a farm prevalence of 16.67% (1 of 6 farms) were recorded in 6 dairy farms by the TST. Of the six dairy farms studied, one of the farms showed prevalence of 34.42% (63/183). There were also marked differences in the prevalence of the disease within the breeds (pure bred and their crosses) and the different age groups. The findings were also corroborated with isolation of the organism and IFN-γ assay. The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in one farm under study signifies potential health risk.
Keywords: Bovine Tuberculosis, Dairy Cattle, Skin testing, IFN-γ, Prevalence.


 Abstract & References ╗ PDF Fulltext╗ doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.408-413
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Original Research 

4.            Isolation, identification and molecular characterization of inclusion body hepatitis virus - Amit Gaba, Hitesh Parmar, J.K.Pal and K.S.Prajapati
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 414-416

 

nclusion body hepatitis caused by avian adenovirus with highly pathogenic strain lead to heavy mortality and unusual lesion like hydropericardium in commercial broilers. Samples were collected from an outbreak in 12000 broiler flock from Andhra Pradesh with sudden high mortality initiated from 32 days of age. Liver was enlarged and showed petechae. Hydropericardium was extensive. 10% liver suspension inoculated to SPF chicks produced mortality with hydropericardium and showed presence of intranuclear inclusions in the hepatocytes. Viral DNA extracted from infected liver processed for PCR produced an amplicon of 890 bp. Nucleotide sequence analysis using blast programme of NCBI showed 99% identity with fowl adenovirus.
Keywords: Inclusion body, Hepatitis, Avian Adenovirus, Broiler, Vaccine, Molecular Characterization.


 Abstract ╗ PDF Fulltext
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Original Research

5.            Influence of different types of bedding materials on immune response and serum biochemical profile of caged mice - R. Vijayakumar, R. Samanta, A. K. Samanta, R. Guria and S. Joardar
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 417-420

 

Contact bedding material is an important environmental factor and welfare creator for laboratory mice. It can alter important physiological process and create potential chance for experimental variation which puts hurdle for comparability. The present experiment was conducted to assess the possible impact of different types of bedding material viz CPS, NWS and PH with fifty one albino mice for a period of fifteen weeks in Laboratory Animal Facility. It was observed that local immunity in mice was enhanced in NWS. During in vitro immune assays, mice from NWS showed higher OD value for reactive oxygen radical, produced more NO2 and higher stimulation index i.e. 0.71 ▒ 0.01, 30.67 ▒ 0.88 ÁM and 7.90 ▒ 0.17, respectively than PH (0.23 ▒ 0.01, 17.0 ▒ 1.15 ÁM and 6.33 ▒ 0.21) and CPS (0.33 ▒ 0.03, 15.67 ▒ 1.20 ÁM and 6.46 ▒ 0.27). There was no influence of bedding type on systemic response. Reduced glutathione value in liver was higher in NWS than PH and CPS i.e. 8.54 ▒ 0.2, 7.09 ▒ 0.18 and 6.96 ▒ 0.14 Ámole/ gm of tissue. But heart reduced glutathione showed no variation among different types of bedding materials. Serum analysis showed significantly (p<0.05) higher total protein and albumin value for enriched groups. But globulin value was not significantly differing for enriched and non-enriched groups.
Key words: Contact bedding, Reduced glutathione, Immune response, Mice.


 Abstract ╗ PDF Fulltext
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Original Research 

6.            Effect of air space in storage vials on motility of spermatozoa in chilled buck semen - Magnus Paul K and Lali F. Anand
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 421-423

 

This study was conducted in order to find out the effect of air space on the top of glass vial in which semen is stored, on the motility of spermatozoa. 45 samples collected from two bucks over a span of 6 months were used for experiment. Goat milk extender was the diluent used. Two ml each of diluted semen after noting their initial motility was stored in 2 ml and 5 ml vials. Samples were stored at 5░C and motility of spermatozoa noted at 24 and 48 hours. Semen without air space was found to preserve the motility better than semen with air space on 24 and 48 hours of incubation. This could be better attributed to reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa, but further investigation is needed in this aspect to confirm it.
Key Words: Sperm Motility, Oxidative Stress, Buck Semen, Reactive Oxygen Species


 Abstract ╗ PDF Fulltext
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Original Research 

7.            Role of Ayucal liquid in improving overall performance and tibial mineralisation in broilers - N. V. Jadhav, B. Awati, Pardeep Kumar, S. M. Kartikesh, K. Ravikanth, Shivi Maini and Divesh Sood
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 424-426

 

An experiment was planned with an aim to study the efficacy of herbal supplement of calcium and phosphorous, Ayucal Liq. (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd. Baddi, India) in 96 commercial day old broiler chicks at college of Veterinary and Animal sciences ,Bidar, KVAFSU, Karnataka, India. Day old chicks were randomly divided to two groups (One control and one treatment) comprising three replicates per treatment of 16 birds each. Group A served as control and was supplemented with basal diet without any additional source of calcium and phosphorous. Group B was administered with Ayucal Liq.@ 10ml/100birds/day for duration of five weeks, respectively. Parameters evaluated were growth, performance, and serum biochemical after 3rd and 5th week & tibial mineralisation after 5th week. Body weight gain and FCR was significantly higher in the treated group as compared to control. Among biochemical parameters serum Ca, P, Cholesterol, Serum alkaline phosphatase were found to be improved in treated group as compared to control group. Tibial mineralisation was significantly better in treated group than control. It can be concluded that supplementation of Ayucal Liquid is efficacious in enhancing bioavailability of Ca & P, thereby improving overall performance & bone mineralisation.
Keywords: Broiler, Mineral, Calcium, Phosphorus, Supplementation.


 Abstract ╗ PDF Fulltext
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Case Report

8.            Surgical correction of chronic cerivco-vaginal prolapse in a Red Sindhi cow through intravaginal approach - S. Nayak and S. Samantara
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 427-428

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Case Report 

9.            Intestinal obstruction in a dog due to saree piece - B. Chandra Prasad, M. M. Rajesh and Ch. Mallikarjuna rao
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 429-430

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Review Article 

10.          Toxoplasmosis: An important protozoan zoonosis - S. S. Sonar, M. N. Brahmbhatt
Vet World. 2010; 3(9): 436-439

 

Toxoplasmosis is an important infection caused by single celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii which is one of the world's most common parasites. Toxoplasmosis is considered to be the third leading cause of death attributed to food-borne illness in the United States. Most people affected never develop signs and symptoms. But for infants born to infected mothers and for people with compromised immune systems, toxoplasmosis can cause extremely serious complications. Toxoplasmosis was first described in 1908 from a small rodent. The parasite infects almost all worm blooded animals and serological evidence indicates that it is one of the most common of humans’ infections throughout the world. The disease is transmitted mainly by ingestion of infective stage of the parasite, organ transplant as well as blood transfusion in addition to the transplacental transmission which is very common. Toxoplasmosis can be presented in various forms of clinical manifestations depending on the immune status of the patient causing life threatening disease in AIDS patient. Pregnant women, cat owners, veterinarians, abattoir workers, children, cooks, butchers are considered as high risk group. Timely treatment of man and animals with proper antibiotic, hygienic measures, proper disinfection, mass education and vaccination are the measures to curtail the disease.
Keywords: Zoonosis, Public Health, Toxoplasmosis, Protozoa.


 Abstract & References ╗ PDF Fulltext╗ doi: 10.5455/vetworld.2010.436-439
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