Veterinary World


ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


 Editorial board

 Instructions for authors

 Reviewer guideline

 Open access policy




Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Review (Published online: 20-12-2013)

10. Impact of heat stress on rumen functions - Brijesh Yadav, Gynendra Singh, A. K. Verma, N. Dutta and V. Sejian
Veterinary World, 6(12): 992-996


doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2013.992-996


1. Thornton, P. K. (2010) Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B. 365(1554): 2853-2867.
PMid:20713389 PMCid:PMC2935116
2. Delgado, C.L. (2003) Rising consumption of meat and milk in developing countries has created a new food revolution. J. Nutr. 133: 3907S-3910S (Supplement 2 on Animal Source Foods).
3. FAOSTAT. Agricultural production database. Food and Agricultural Organization. default.aspx Accessed on August 8, 2013.
4. Lonergan, S. (1998) Climate warming and India. In: Dinar, A. et al (eds) Measuring the Impact of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture. World Bank Technical Paper No. 402, Washington DC, pp 33–67.
5. Gaughan, J.B., Mader, T.L., Holt, S.M., Sullivan, M.L. and Hahn, G.L. (2009) Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes. Int. J. Biometeorol. 54: 617–627.
6. Baumgard, L.H. and Rhoads, R.P. (2012) Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: ruminant production and metabolic responses to heat stress. J. Anim. Sci. 90(6): 1855-1865.
7. National Research Council. (1989) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (6th Revised Edition Update). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
8. Rhoads, R.P., Baumgard, L.H., Suagee, J.K., & Sanders, S.R. (2013) Nutritional Interventions to Alleviate the Negative Consequences of Heat Stress. Adv.Nutr. 4(3): 267-276.
9. Wheelock, J.B., Rhoads, R.P., VanBaale, M.J., Sanders, S.R. and Baumgard, L.H. (2010) Effects of heat stress on energetic metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93: 644–655.
10. Albright, J.L. and Alliston, C.W. (1972) Effects of varying the environment upon performance of dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 32: 566–577.
11. Rhoads, M.L., Rhoads, R.P., VanBaale, M.J., Collier, R.J., Sanders, S.R., Weber, W.J., Crooker, B.A. and Baumgard, L.H. (2009) Effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on lactating Holstein cows: I. Production, metabolism, and aspects of circulating somatotropin. J. Dairy Sci. 9(5):986- 997.
12. Smith, D.L., Smith, T., Rude, B.J. and Ward, S.H. (2013) Comparison of the effects of heat stress on milk and component yields and somatic cell score in Holstein and Jersey cows. J. Dairy Sci. 96(5): 3028-3033.
13. Nonaka, I., Takusari, N., Tajima, K., Suzuki Higuchi, T. and Kurihara, K.M. (2008) Effects of high environmental temperatures on physiological and nutritional status of prepubertal Holstein heifers. Livest. Sci. 113: 14–23.
14. Pereira, A.M.F., Baccari Jr. F., Titto, E.A.L. and Almeida, J.A.A. (2008) Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in Alentejana, Mertolenga, Frisian and Limousine cattle breeds. Int. J. Biometeorol. 52: 199–208.
15. Yadav, B., Singh, G., Wankar, A., Dutta, N., Verma, A.K. and Chaturvedi, V.B. (2012a) Effect of heat stress on digestibility in crossbred cattle. VIIIth Biennial Conference of ANAC and symposium on Animal Nutrition Research Strategies for Food Security. pp 138.
16. Hall, M. B. (2009) Heat Stress Alters Ruminal Fermentation and Digesta Characteristics, and Behavior in Lactating Dairy Cattle. In Proceeding of 11th International Symoosium on Ruminant Physiology, Y. Chilliard, F. Glasser, Y. Faulconnier, F. Bocquier, I. Veissier, and M. Doreau, ed. Wageningen Academic Publ., Wageningen, the Netherlands pp. 204.
17. Hamzaoui, S., Salama, A.A.K., Albanell, E., Such, X. and Caja, G. (2013) Physiological responses and lactational performances of late-lactation dairy goats under heat stress conditions. J. Dairy Sci. 96(10): 6355-6365.
18. Chaiyabutr, N., Chanpongsang, S. and Suadsong, S. (2008) Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and milk production in crossbred Holstein cattle in a tropical environment. Int. J. Biometeorol. 52: 575–585.
19. Korde, J.P., Jadhao, S.V., Varshney, V.P., Singh, G and Shukla, D.C. (2006) Longterm effects of heat exposure on nutrient digestibility and digesta flow rate in buffalo calves. Buffalo Bulletin 22(1): 25-32.
20. Sejian, V., Valtorta, S., Gallardo, M. and Singh, A. K. (2012) Ameliorative Measures to Counteract Environmental Stresses. In Environmental Stress and Amelioration in Livestock Production. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 153-180.
21. Soriani, N., Panella, G. and Calamari, L. (2013) Rumination time during the summer season and its relationships with metabolic conditions and milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 96(8): 5082-5094.
22. Dikmen, S., Ustuner, H. and Orman, A. (2012) The effect of body weight on some welfare indicators in feedlot cattle in a hot environment. Int. J. Biometeorol. 56(2): 297-303.
23. Baile, C.A. and Forbes, J.M. (1974) Control of feed intake and regulation of energy balance in ruminants. Physiol. Rev. 54: 160.
24. Aganga, A.H., Umna, N.N., Oyendipe, E.O., Okoh, P.N. and Aduku, A.O. (1990) Response to water deprivation by Yankasa ewes under different physiological states. Small Rumin. Res. 3: 109–115.
25. Silanikove, N. (1985) Effect of dehydration on feed intake and dry matter digestibility in desert (black Bedouin) and non-desert (Swiss Saanen) goats fed on lucerne hay. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 80A: 449–452.
26. Marai, I.F.M. and Haeeb, A.A.M. (2010) Buffalo's biological functions as affected by heat stress-A review. Livest. Sci. 127(2): 89-109.
27. Mishra, M., Martz, F.A., Stanley, R.W., Johnson, H.D., Campbell, J.R., Hildebrand. E. (1970) Effect of diet and ambient temperature–humidity and ruminal pH, oxidation –reduction potential, ammonia and lactic acid in lactating cows. J. Anim. Sci. 31: 1023–1028.
28. Grovum, W.L. (1981) Factors affecting the voluntary intake of food by sheep. 3. The effect of intravenous infusions of gastrin, cholecystokinin and secretin on motility of the reticulo-rumen intake. Br. J. Nutr. 45: 183–201.
29. Bloom, S. R. (1978) Gut hormones. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 37: 259–271.
30. Kelly, R.O., Martz, F.A. and Johnson, H.D. (1967) Effect of environmental temperature on ruminal VFA levels with controlled feed intake. J. Dairy Sci. 50: 531–533.
31. Tajima, K., Nonaka, I., Higuchi, K., Takusari, N., Kurihara, M., Takenaka, A. and Aminov, R.I. (2007) Influence of high temperature and humidity on rumen bacterial diversity in Holstein heifers. Anaerobe 13(2): 57-64.
32. Salles, M.S.V., Zanetti, M.A., Salles, F.A., Titto, E.A.L. and Conti, R.M.C. (2010) Changes in ruminal fermentation and mineral serum level in animals kept in high temperature environments. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39(4): 883-890.
33. King, C.C., Dschaak, C.M., Eun, J.S., Fellner, V. and Young, A.J. (2011) Quantitative analysis of microbial fermentation under normal or high ruminal temperature in continuous cultures. The Professional Animal Scientist 27(4): 319-327.
34. Uyeno, Y., Sekiguchi, Y., Tajima, K., Takenaka, A., Kurihara, M. and Kamagata, Y. (2010) An rRNA-based analysis for evaluating the effect of heat stress on the rumen microbial composition of Holstein heifers. Anaerobe 16(1): 27-33.
35. Christopherson, R.J. (1985) The thermal environment and the ruminant digestive system. In: Yousef, M.K. (Ed.), Stress Physiology in Livestock. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 163–180.
36. National Research Council. (1981) Effects of environment on nutrient requirements of domestic animals. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
37. Weniger, J.H. and Stein, M. (1992) Einfluss von Ungebun- gstemperatur und Luftfeuchte auf die Nahrstoffverdaulichkeit beim Schaf. 1. Problemstellung, Durchfuhrung der Untersuchungen, Verdaulichkeit. Zuchtungs-kunde 64: 148 –155.
38. Mathers, J.C., Baber, R.P., Archibald, R.F., (1989) Intake, digestion and gastro-intestinal mean retention time in Asiatic Buffaloes and Ayrshire cattle given two contrasting diets and housed at 20 °C and 33 °C. J. Agric. Sci. 113: 211–222.
39. McDowell, R.E., Moody, E.G., Van Soest, P.J. and Lehmann, R.P. (1969) Effect of heat stress on energy and water utilization of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 52: 188–194.
40. Christopherson, R.J. and Kennedy, P.M. (1983) Effect of the thermal environment on digestion in ruminants. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 63: 477–496.
41. Korde, J.P., Singh, G., Varshney, V.P. and Shukla, D.C. (2007) Effects of Long-term Heat Exposure on Adaptive Mechanism of Blood Acid-base in Buffalo Calves. Asian- Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13: 329–332.
42. Bernabucci, U. (2011) Impact of Hot Environment on Nutrient Requirements. Environmental Physiology of Livestock, 101-128.
43. Nonaka, I., Takusari, N., Higuchi, K., Enishi, O. and Kurihara, M. (2012) Effects of a Hot and Humid Environment on the Performance of Holstein Heifers. Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. 46(3): 221-226.
44. Bernabucci, U., Bani, P., Ronchi, B., Lacetera, N. and Nardone, A. (1999) Influence of short and long-term exposure to hot environment on rumen passage rate and diet digestibility by Friesian heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 967–973.
45. Lu, C.D. (1989) Effect of heat stress on goat production. Small Rumin. Res. 2: 151–162.
46. McDowell, R.E., Hooven, N.W. and Camoens J.K. (1976) Effects of climate on performance of Holsteins in first lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 59: 965–973.
47. Bernabucci, U., Lacetera, N., Danieli, P.P., Bani, P., Nardone, A. and Ronchi, B. (2009) Influence of different periods of exposure to hot environment on rumen function and diet digestibility in sheep. Int. J. Biometeorol. 53: 387–395.
48. Liu, Y. and Whitman, W.B. (2008) Metabolic, phylogenetic, and ecological diversity of the methanogenic archaea. Annals New York Acad. Sci. 1125: 171–189.
49. Johnson, K.A. and Johnson, D.E. (1995) Methane emissions from cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 2483–2492.
50. Monteny, G.J., Groenestein, C.M. and Hilhorst, M.A. (2001) Interactions and coupling between emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from animal husbandry. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys. 60(1/3): 123-132.
51. Monteny, G.J., Bannink, A. and Chadwick, D. (2006) Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 112(2-3): 163-170.
52. Shibata, M. and Terada, F. (2010) Factors affecting methane production and mitigation in ruminants. Anim. Sci. J. 81(1): 2-10.
53. Morvay, Y., Bannink, A., France, J., Kebreab, E. and Dijkstra, J. (2011) Evaluation of models to predict the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid profiles in rumen fluid of lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94(6): 3063-3080.
54. Dijkstra, J., Ellis, J.L., Kebreab, E., Strathe, A.B., López, S., France, J. and Bannink, A. (2012) Ruminal pH regulation and nutritional consequences of low pH. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 172(1): 22-33.
55. Ngwabie, N.M., Jeppsson, K.H., Gustafsson, G. and Nimmermark, S. (2011) Effects of animal activity and air temperature on methane and ammonia emissions from a naturally ventilated building for dairy cows. Atmos. Environ. 45(37): 6760-6768.
56. Ramin, M. and Huhtanen, P. (2012) Development of non- linear models for predicting enteric methane production. Acta. Agric. Scand. A. 62(4): 254-258.
57. Hippenstiel, F., Pries, M., Büscher, W. and Südekum, K.H. (2013) Comparative evaluation of equations predicting methane production of dairy cattle from feed characteristics. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 67(4): 279-288.
58. Yadav, B., Singh, G., Wankar, A., Dutta, N., Verma, A.K. and Chaturvedi, V.B. (2012b). Effect of thermal stress on Methane emission in crossbred cattle. VIIIth Biennial Conference of ANAC and symposium on Animal Nutrition Research Strategies for Food Security. pp 144.