Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 29-12-2014)

21. Mineral deficiency predisposes occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred - S. K. Sheetal, S. K. Choudhary and D. Sengupta

Veterinary World, 7(12): 1140-1143



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1140-1143



S. K. Sheetal: Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar, India;

S. K. Choudhary: Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar, India;

D. Sengupta: Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna, Bihar, India;


Received: 10-09-2014, Revised: 17-11-2014, Accepted: 21-11-2014, Published online: 29-12-2014


Corresponding author: S. K. Sheetal, e-mail:

Aim: The present study was carried out to investigate the relationship between blood serum concentrations of macro and micro minerals and development of retention of placenta (ROP) in crossbred cattle.

Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at Instructional Livestock Farm, Bihar Veterinary College and local Khatals in and around Patna. A total of 20 crossbred cattle (n=10 with normal expulsion of the placenta as control and n=10 with ROP) were selected in the present study. Blood samples were collected from these animals and serum was separated and stored in the deep freezer at 20°C till further analysis. The estimation of serum macro-minerals (Ca, P, Ca/P ratio) was done by Span diagnostic Kits (Surat, India) and trace minerals or micro-minerals (Zn, Cu, and Fe) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer AAS 220). Mean values were compared between both the groups at 0 h (at parturition) and 12 h after parturition.

Results: The mean values of serum calcium and zinc were found significantly lower in cattle having ROP than control at both 0 h and 12 h after parturition. The mean values of serum Ca and P ratio obtained at 0 hour were significantly lower in ROP groups as compared to control groups and non-significant at 12 h. The mean values of serum inorganic phosphorus, copper and iron was found non-significantly lower in ROP cases as compared to control.

Conclusions: Macro and micro mineral deficiency such as calcium, iron, zinc and copper in blood serum may be predisposing factor for the occurrence of retention of placenta in crossbred cattle.

Keywords: cattle, macro and micro-mineral profiles, parturition, retention of placenta.

1. Stephen, J.L. (2008). A postpartum uterine disease and dairy herd reproductive performance: A review. Vet. J., 176(1): 102-114.
2. Alacam Alaam, E. (2002). The Domestic Animals Obstetrics and Infertility. Evcil Hayvanlarda DoÛum ve Ünfertilite. Medisan Publishing house, Ankara. Medisan Yayİnevi, Ankar .
3. McDowell, L.R. (1992). Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition., Academic Press, London.
4. Zhang, C.K., Ye, J.P. and Chen, J.H. (1992). The changes of mineral contents of serum during the dry period and prior to and after calving in dairy cows with retained placenta. Chin.ese J. Vet. Med., 18: 10-11.
5. Lotthammer, K.H. (1983). Comparative studies of the course of mineral, metabolite, enzyme and hormone levels in blood serum ante partum in dairy cows with and without later retained placenta. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr., 90: 427-433.
6. Mutiga, E.R., Mba, I. K., Tsuma, V.T., Karitu, P.T. and Ojiayo, S.O. (1993). Incidence and causes of retained placenta in smallholder dairy herds. Indian Vet. J., 70: 333-336.
7. Akar, Y. and Yildiz, H. (2005). Concentration of some minerals in cows with retained placenta and abortion. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 29, 1157-1162.
8. Samal, L. and Mishra, C. (2010). Significance of macro and micro minerals for reproductive health of farm animals. Proceeding. XXVI Annual Convention of ISSAR and Int. Symposium. On "Biotechnologies for Optimization of Reproductive Efficiency of Farm and Companian Animals to Improve Global Food Security and Human Health" held at Pantnagar, India. p.77.
9. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical Methods. 8th ed. The Iowa State Univ. Press. Ames., Iowa, U.S.A.
10. Waldron, M. R. (2010). Impact of metabolic and oxidative stressors on periparturient immune function and health. Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop. Pp 33-39.
11. Sordillo, L. M. (2009). Current concepts on immunity and mastitis. WCDS Adv. Dairy Technol., 21: 111-119.
12. Hashem, M. A. and Amer, H. A. (2008). Hormonal and biochemical anomalies in dairy cows affected by retained fetal membranes. The International J. of Vet. Med., Vet on line (TM) Available from: dated-05.101.20124.
13. Hartmann, D., Honnens, A., Piechotta, M., Lüttgenau, J., Niemann, H., Rath, D. and Bollwein, H. (2013). Effects of a protracted induction of parturition on the incidence of retained placenta and assessment of uterine artery blood flow as a measure of placental maturation in cattle. Theriogenology, 80(3): 176-184.
14. Maj, J.G., Kankofer, M. (1997). Activity of 72–kDa and 92–kDa matrix metalloproteinases in placental tissues of cows with and without retained fetal membranes. Placenta,. 18(8): 683- – 687.
15. Mohanty, Ke., Mohanty, B.N., Ray, S.K.H. and Mohanty, D.N. (1994). Levels of glucose, calcium and alkaline phosphatase in blood with relation to retention of placenta in bovines. Indian Vet. Med. J., 13: 64-65.
16. Arthur, G.H., Noakes, D.E. and Pearson, H. (1992). Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 6th ed. Bailliere Tindall, London.6th edn., pp. 283-293.
17. Sosa G.A. and Nasr M.T. (1995): Control of placental retention and its influence on subsequent fertility in Friesian cows. The 7th Ann. Cong. Egypt. Soc. Anim. Reprod. Fert., Cairo., pp: 162-170.
18. Ray, S.K.H., Dash, H.D., Mohanty, D.N., Das, S., Bisnoi, P.C. and Barik, A.K. (2004). Studies on certain hematological and biochemical constituents in cows with retained fetal membranes. Indian J. Anim. Reprod., 25(2): 128-130.
19. Tillard, E., Humblot, P., Faye, B., Lecomte, P., Dohoo, I. and Bocquier, F. (2008). Postcalving factors affecting conceptionrisk in Holstein dairy cows in tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Theriogenology, 69(4): 443-457.
20. Socha, M. T., Tomlinson, D. J. and Ward, T. L. (2005). Benefits of improving trace mineral status of dairy replacement heifers. Proceedings of the 2005 Four-State Dairy Nutrition and Management Conference. June 15 and 16th. Dubuque, Iowa. pg 31-43.
21. O'Rourke, D. (2009). Nutrition and udder health in dairy cows. A review. Ir. Vet. J., 62 Suppl 4: 15-20.
PMid:22082340 PMCid:PMC3339345
22. Spears, J.W. and Weiss, W.P. (2008). Role of antioxidants and trace elements in health and immunity of transition dairy cows. Vet. J., 176(1): 70-76.
23. Forsberg, N.E. (2010). Nutritional regulation of innate and mucosal immunity. Proceedings of the 2010 Penn State Dairy Cattle Nutrition Workshop. November 10, 11. Grantville, PA. Pp 25-32.
PMid:21283733 PMCid:PMC3024554
24. Ahmed, W.M., Abd El Hameed, A.R., El Khadrawy, H.H. and Hanafi, E.M. (2009). Investigations on retained placenta in Egyptian buffaloes. Global Vet., 3(2): 120-124.
25. Khanthusaeng, V., Navanukraw, C., Aiumlamai, S., Nilsri, P. and Suwannasan, C. (2014). Effect of organic trace minerals supplement during pre and postpartum dairy cows on parturition, incidence of retained foetal membranes, first estrus and ovulation. Thai J.ournal of Anim. Sci., 2: 35-38.
26. Sivaraman, T., Shanmugasundsaram, S., Arunachalam, S. and Sivakumar, T. (2003). Blood profile of constituents associated with production diseases in Jersey crossbred cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 73: 44-47.
27. Weiss, W. P., Pinos-Rodriguez, J. M., and Socha, M. T. (2010). Effects of feeding supplemental organic iron to late gestation and early lactation cows. J. Dairy Sci., 93(5): 2153-2160.
28. Hansen, S. L. and Spears, J. W. (2009). Bioaccessibility of iron from soil is increased by silage fermentation. J. Dairy Sci., 92(6): 2896-2905.
29. Wilde, D. (2006): Influence of macro and micro minerals in the peri-parturient period on fertility in dairy cattle. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 96(3-4): 240-249.
30. Sales, J.N.S., Pereira, R.V.V., Bicalho, R.C. and Baruselli, P.S. (2011). Effect of injectable copper, selenium, zinc and manganese on the pregnancy rate of crossbred heifers (Bos indicus x Bos Taurus synchronized for timed embryo transfer. Livest. Sci., 142: 59-62.