Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License

( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 11-12-2014)

8. Effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats - S. J. Bunglavan, A. K. Garg, R. S. Dass and Sameer Shrivastava

Veterinary World, 7(12): 1075-1081



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1075-1081



S. J. Bunglavan: Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;

A. K. Garg: Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;

R. S. Dass: Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;

Sameer Shrivastava: Division of Animal Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India;


Received: 31-07-2014 Revised: 06-11-2014 Accepted: 11-11-2014, Published online: 11-12-2014


Corresponding author: S. J. Bunglavan, e-mail:

Aim: To study the effect of supplementation of different levels of selenium as nanoparticles/sodium selenite on blood biochemical profile and humoral immunity in male Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: The experimental research was conducted at Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. 63 male Wistar rats were divided into 9 equal groups on the basis of their mean body weight (BW) (124.3±3.1 g BW) following completely randomized design. Experimental feeding was similar in all the groups except for the source and level of selenium (Se) in the diet. While Group 1 (control) was fed a basal diet with no Se supplementation, in Groups 2 and 3, 150 ppb Se was supplemented either as sodium selenite or Se nanoparticles, respectively. In Groups 4, 5, 6 and 7, Se was supplemented as its nanoparticles at 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% levels respectively i.e. at 75 ppb, 37.5 ppb, 18.75 ppb and 9.375 ppb levels respectively. In Groups 8 and 9, 300 ppb Se was supplemented either as Se nanoparticles or sodium selenite, respectively. Experimental feeding was conducted for a period of 91 days. At the end of the experimental trial, blood samples were collected to analyze the blood serum biochemical profile (serum glucose, serum total protein (TP), serum albumin, serum globulin, serum albumin: globulin ratio [A:G ratio], serum total cholesterol) and humoral immunity.

Results: The levels of serum glucose, serum TP and serum albumin were comparable (p>0.05) among the nine groups of male Wistar rats. The mean serum total cholesterol was significantly (p<0.001) lowered in all the Se supplemented Wistar rats compared to the control group. The mean serum globulin level was significantly (p<0.05) higher and A:G ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lowered in Group 3 (supplemented with 150 ppb selenium nanoparticles) followed by Groups 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 as compared to the control group. The mean serum antibody titer was significantly (p<0.001) higher in all the Se supplemented groups with the highest value in Group 3 (supplemented with 150 ppb selenium nanoparticles) followed by Groups 4, 5, 8 and 9 compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Supplementation of selenium nanoparticles at the level of 150 ppb gave the best performance in terms of increased serum globulin level, reduced A:G ratio, and improved humoral immune status in male Wistar rats.

Keywords: humoral immunity, nanoparticles, selenium, serum cholesterol, serum globulin, serum glucose, serum total protein, Wistar rats.

1. Pappas, A.C. and Zoidis, E. (2012) The role of selenium in chicken physiology: New insights. In: Kapur, I. and Mehra, A., editors. Chickens: Physiology, Diseases and Farming Practices. Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, USA. p51-69.
2. Abd El-Ghany, H. and Tortora-Perez, J.L. (2010) The importance of selenium and the effects of its deficiency in animal health. Small Rumin. Res., 89: 185-192.
3. Schrauzer, G.N. and Surai, P.F. (2009) Selenium in human, animal nutrition: Resolved, unresolved issues. A partly historical treatise in commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of the biological essentiality of selenium, dedicated to the memory of Klaus Schwarz (1914-1978) on the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of his death. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 29(1): 2-9.
4. Pilarczyk, B., Jankowiak, D., Tomza- Marciniak, A., Pilarczyk, R., Sablik, P., Drozd, R., Tylkowska, A. and Skolmowska, M. (2012) Selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum of cows at different stages of lactation. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 147: 91-96.
5. Ebeid, T.A. (2012) Vitamin E and organic selenium enhances the antioxidative status and quality of chicken cockerel semen under high ambient temperature. Br. Poult. Sci., 53: 708-714.
6. Sadeghian, S., Kojouri, G.A. and Mohebbi M. (2012) Nanoparticles of selenium as species with stronger physiological effects in sheep in comparison with sodium selenite. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 146: 302-308.
PMid:22127831 PMCid:PMC3332341
7. Saad, M.B., Gertner, L.R., Bona, T.D. and Santin, E. (2009) Selenium influence in the poultry immune response - Review. Recent Pat. Food Nutr. Agric., 1(3): 243-247.
8. Ozbal, S., Erbil, G., Kocdor, H., Tugyan, K., Pekcetin, C. and Ozogul, C. (2008) The effects of selenium against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Neurosci. Lett., 438: 265-269.
9. Zhou, X., Wang, Y., Gu, Q. and Li, W. (2009) Effect of different dietary selenium source (selenium nanoparticle and selenomethionine) on growth performance, muscle composition and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity of crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Aquaculture, 291: 78-81.
10. Zhou, X. and Wang, Y. (2011) Influence of dietary nano elemental selenium on growth performance, tissue selenium distribution, meat quality, and glutathione peroxidase activity in Guangxi Yellow chicken. Poult. Sci., 90: 680-686.
11. Vendeland, S.C., Deagen, J.T., Butler, J.A. and Whange, P.D. (1994) Uptake of selenite, selenomethionine and selenate by brush border membrane vesicle isolated from rat small intestine. Biometals, 7: 305-312.
12. Spallholz, J.E. (1994) On the nature of selenium toxicity and carcinostatic activity. Free Radic. Bio. Med., 17: 45-64.
13. Federal Register (2002) Food additive permitted in feed and drinking water: Selenium yeast. Fed. Regist., 67: 46850-46851.
14. Jiang, Z.Y., Lin, Y.C., Zhou, G.L., Luo, L.H., Jiang, S.Q. and Chen, F. (2009) Effects of dietary selenomethionine supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant property in yellow broilers. J. Agric. Food Chem., 57: 9769-9772.
15. EEC. (2006) Commission Regulation (EC) No 1750/2006 of 27 Nov, 2006. Concerning the authorization of selenomethionine as a feed additive.
16. Hu, C.H., Li, Y.L., Xiong, L., Zhang, H.M., Song, J. and Xia, M.S. (2012) Comparative effects of nano elemental selenium and sodium selenite on selenium retention in broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 177: 204-210.
17. Shi, L.G., Yang, R.J., Yue, W.B., Xun, W.J., Zhang, C.X., Ren, Y.S., Shi, L. and Lei, F.L. (2010) Effect of elemental nano-selenium on semen quality, glutathione peroxidase activity, and testis ultrastructure in male Boer goats. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 118(2-4): 248-254.
18. Rezvanfar, M.A., Rezvanfar, M.A., Shahverdi, A.R., Ahmadi, A., Baeeri, M., Mohammadirad, A. and Abdollahi, M. (2013) Protection of cisplatin-induced spermatotoxicity, DNA damage and chromatin abnormality by selenium nanoparticles. Toxicol. Appl. Pharm., 266: 356-365.
19. Jia, X., Li, N. and Chen, J.A. (2005) A subchronic toxicity study of elemental Nano- Se in Sprague–Dawley rats. Life Sci., 76(17): 1989-2003.
20. Zhang, J.S., Wang, H.L., Yan, X.X. and Zhang, L.D. (2005) Comparison of short-term toxicity between Nano-Se and selenite in mice. Life Sci., 76(10): 1099-1109.
21. Zhang, J.S., Wang, X.F. and Xu, T.W. (2008) Elemental selenium at nano size (Nano-Se) as a potential chemo preventive agent with reduced risk of selenium toxicity: comparison with Se-methylselenocysteine in mice. Toxicol. Sci., 101(1): 22-31.
22. Wang, H., Zhang, J. and Yu, H. (2007) Elemental selenium at nano size possesses lower toxicity without compromising the fundamental effect on selenoenzymes: comparison with selenomethionine in mice. Free Radic. Bio. Med., 42(10): 1524-1533.
23. NRC. (1995) Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals. 4th Revised ed. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
24. AOAC. (2012) Official Method of Analysis of AOAC International. 19th ed. Association of Analytical Communities International, Virginia, USA.
25. Talapatra, S.K., Ray, S.N. and Sen, K.C. (1940) Estimation of phosphorus, chlorine, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in foodstuffs. Indian J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Husbandry. 10: 243-246.
26. Ingole, A.R., Thakare, S.R., Khati, N.T., Wankhade, A.V. and Burghate, D.K. (2010) Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles under ambient condition. Chalcogenide Lett., 7: 485-489.
27. Chen, H., Yoo, J., Liu, Y. and Zhao, G. (2011) Green synthesis and characterization of Se nanoparticles and nanorods. Electron. Mater. Lett., 7: 333-336.
28. Shah, C.P., Singh, K.K., Kumar, M. and Bajaj, P.N. (2010) Vinyl monomers-induced synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol-stabilized selenium nanoparticles. Mater. Res. Bull. 45: 56-62.
29. Henry, R.J. (1963) Standard Methods of Clinical Chemistry. 1st ed. Harper and Row Publishing Company, New York, USA.
30. Dumas, B.T., Watson, W.A. and Briggs, H.G. (1971) Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Clin. Chim. Acta., 31: 87-96.
31. Wybenga, D.R., Pileggi, V.J., Dirstine, P.H. and Giorgio, J.D. (1970) Direct manual determination of serum total cholesterol with a single stable reagent. Clin. Chem., 16(12): 980-984.
32. SPSS Version 17.0. (2010) Base Application Guide 7.5. Statistical Package for Social Science, USA-7.
33. Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1980) Principles and procedures of statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill International Book Company, New Delhi, India.
34. Singh, R., Randhawa, S.S. and Dhillon, K.S. (2002) Changes in blood biochemical and enzyme profile in experimental chronic selenosis in buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Indian J. Anim. Sci., 72: 230-232.
35. Ebrahimi, M., Towhidi, A. and Nikkhah, A. (2009) Effect of organic selenium on thermo metabolism, blood chemical composition and weight gain in Holstein suckling calves. Asian Aust. J. Anim., 7: 984-992.
36. Nayyar, S., Gill, V.K., Malik, V.S., Roy, K.S. and Singh, R. (2003) Vitamin E and selenium improve the blood biochemical composition of anoestrous buffalo heifers. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 73: 654-656.
37. Mohapatra, P., Swain, R.K., Mishra, S.K., Behera, T., Swain, P., Mishra, S.S., Behura, N.C., Sabat, S.C., Sethy, K., Dhama, K. and Jayasankar, P. (2014) Effects of dietary nano selenium on tissue selenium deposition, antioxidant status and immune functions in layer chicks. Int. J. Pharmacol., 10: 160-167.
38. Shinde, P.L., Dass, R.S., Garg, A.K. and Bhadane, K.P. (2008) Effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization and their balance in male buffalo calves. Anim. Nutr. Feed Technol., 8: 135-143.
39. Yang, Y.R., Meng, F.C., Wang, P., Jiang, Y.B., Yin, Q., Chang, J., Zuo, R.Y., Zeng, Q.H. and Liu, J.X. (2012) Effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and antioxidant property of broilers. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 11: 3031-3036.
40. Chung, J.Y., Kim, J.H., Ko, Y.H. and Jang, I.S. (2007) Effect of dietary supplemented inorganic and organic selenium on antioxidant defence systems in the intestine, serum, liver and muscle of Korean native goats. Asian Aust. J. Anim., 20: 52-59.
41. Mudgal, V., Garg, A.K., Dass, R.S. and Varshney, V.P. (2008) Effect of selenium and copper supplementation on blood metabolic profile in male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 121(1): 31-38.
42. Dominguez-Vara, I.A., Gonzalez-Munoz, S.S., Pinos-Rodriguez, J.M., Borquez-Gastelum, J.L., Barcena-Gama, R., Mendoza- Martinez, G., Zapata, L.E. and Landois-Palencia, L.L. (2009) Effects of feeding selenium-yeast and chromium-yeast to finishing lambs on growth, carcass characteristics, and blood hormones and metabolites. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 152: 42-49.
43. Dhingra, S. and Bansal, M.P. (2006a) Attenuation of LDL receptor gene expression by selenium deficiency during hypercholesterolemia. Mol. Cell Biochem., 282(1-2): 75-82.
44. Dhingra, S. and Bansal, M.P. (2006b) Modulation of hypercholesterolemia-induced alterations in apolipoprotein B and HMG-CoA reductase expression by selenium supplementation. Chem. Biol. Interact., 161(1): 49-56.
45. Yang, K.C., Lee, L.T., Lee, Y.S., Huang, H.Y., Chen, C.Y. and Huang, K.C. (2010) Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study. Nutr. Metab.,7: 38.
PMid:20459618 PMCid:PMC2873298
46. Arthur, J.R., Morrice, P.C. and Beckett, G.J. (1988) Thyroid hormone content in selenium deficient and selenium sufficient cattle. Res. Vet. Sci., 45(1): 122-123.
47. Ganie, A.A., Baghel, R.P.S., Mudgal, V. and Sheikh, G.G. (2012) Effect of selenium supplementation on blood metabolic profile of buffalo heifers. Indian J. Anim. Res., 46: 407-409.
48. Droke, E.A. and Loerch, S.C. (1989) Effects of parenteral selenium and vitamin E on performance, health and humoral immune response of steers new to the feedlot environment. J. Anim. Sci., 67(5): 1350-1359.
49. Nicholson, J.W.G., Bush, R.S. and Allen, J.G. (1993) Antibody response of growing beef cattle fed silage diet with and without selenium supplementation. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 73: 355-365.
50. Kumar, N., Garg, A.K., Dass, R.S., Chaturvedi, V.K., Mudgal, V. and Varshney, V.P. (2009) Selenium supplementation influences growth performance, antioxidant status and immune response in lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 153: 77-87.
51. Cai, S.J., Wu, C.X., Gong, L.M., Song, T., Wu, H. and Zhang, L.Y. (2012) Effects of nano-selenium on performance, meat quality, immune function, oxidation resistance, and tissue selenium content in broilers. Poult. Sci., 91(10): 2532-2539.
52. Shinde, P.L., Dass, R.S., Garg, A.K. and Chaturvedi, V.K. (2007) Immune response and plasma alpha tocopherol and selenium status of male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves supplemented with vitamin E and selenium. Asian Aust. J. Anim. 20: 1539-1545.