Veterinary World

     Open access and peer reviewed journal  

ISSN (Online): 2231-0916

ISSN (Print): 0972-8988


Home l Editorial board l Instructions for authors l Reviewer guideline l Open access policy l Archives l FAQ

Open Access

Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

Research (Published online: 04-07-2014)

3. Isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease virus from vaccinated commercial layer chicken - P. Balachandran, P. Srinivasan, S. Sivaseelan, G. A. Balasubramaniam and T. R. Gopala Krishna Murthy
Veterinary World, 7(7): 457-462



   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.457-462


P. Balachandran: Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India;

P. Srinivasan: Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India;

S. Sivaseelan: Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India;

G. A. Balasubramaniam: Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India;

T. R. Gopala Krishna Murthy: Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India; gkmurthy_in @

Received: 11-04-2014, Revised: 31-05-2014, Accepted: 03-06-2014, Published online: 04-07-2014


Corresponding author: P. Srinivasan, email:

1. Al-Garib, S. O., Gielkens, A. L. J. and Koch, G. (2003) Review of Newcastle disease virus with particular references to immunity and vaccination. World's Poul. Sci. J. 59: 185- 200.
2. Alexander, D. J. (2008) Newcastle disease, other avian paramyxoviruses,and pneumovirus infection. In: Disease of poultry, 12th ed. (Shaif, Y.M., Barnes, H.J., Glisson, J.R. and McDougald, L.R.) Blackwell, Oxford, UK. p75-100.
3. Stram, Y., Shchori, D., Chinitch, Y., David, D., Molad, T. and Samina, I. (1998) Molecular characterization of an unassigned Israeli Newcastle disease virus isolate. Avian Dis. 42:746-51.
4. Bennejean, G. (1988) Newcastle disease: Control policies. In D.J. Alexander (ed). Newcastle Disease. Kluwer academic Publisher: Boston, MA, p303-317.
5. Srinivasan, P., Balasubramaniam, G.A., Gopalakrishna- murthy, T.R. and Balachandran, P. (2012) Pathology of oviduct in suboptimally producing commercial layer chicken. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 11: 577-581.
6. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). (2012) Chapter 2.3.14. Newcastle disease In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Paris. p1-19.
7. Pedersen, J. C. (2011) Procedure for Determining Mean Death Time for Newcastle Disease Virus Isolates, SOP-AV- 2016, National Veterinary Services Laboratories testing protocol, Ames, Iowa, USA.
8. Pazhanivel, N., Balasubramaniam, G.A., Titus George, V. and Mohan, B. (2002) Study of Natural outbreak of Newcastle Disease in and around Namakkal. Indian Vet. J., 79: 293 - 294.
9. Srinivasan, P. (2008) Pathology of Reproductive organs with special reference to oviduct in layer. Ph.D., thesis submitted to Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai.
10. Kouwenhoven, B. (1993) Newcastle disease. Pp.341-361. In: Virus Infections of Birds (McFerran, J.B. and McNulty, M.S.) Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
11. Adi, A.A.A.M., Astawa, N.M., Putra, K.S.A., Hayashi, Y. and Matsumoto, Y. (2010) Isolation and Characterization of a Pathogenic Newcastle Disease Virus from a Natural Case in Indonesia. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 72: 313–319.
12. Hanson, R.P. and Brandly, C.A. (1955) Identification of vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus. Science 122:156- 157.
13. Alexander, D.J. and Senne, D.A. (2008) Newcastle disease virus and other avian paramyxoviruses. In A laboratory manual for the isolation and identification of avian pathogens, 6th ed (Dufour Zavala, L., Swayne, D.E., Glisson, J.R., Pearson, J.E., Reed, W.M., Jackwood, M.W. and Woolcock,P.R,). The American Association of Avian Pathologists, Athens, Georgia. p135–141.
14. Alexander, D.J. and Allan, W.H. (1974). Newcastle disease virus pathotypes. Avian Pathol. 3: 269–278.
15. Parade, L. and Young, P.L. (1990) The pathogenesis of velogenic Newcastle disease virus infection in chickens of different ages and different levels of immunity. Avian Dis, 34: 803 - 808.
16. Hamid, H., Campbell, R.S.F. and Parede, L. (1991) Studies on the Pathology of Velogenic New castle disease virus infection on non-immune and immune birds. Avian Pathol. 20: 561 - 575.
17. Sumithra, A., Srinivasan, P., Balasubramaniam, G.A., Gopalakrishnamurthy, T.R. and Balachandran, P. (2013) Ameliorative effect of Panchagavya on Newcastle disease in layer chicken. Inter. J. Agri. Biosci., 2: 60-63.
18. Mukhopadhyay, H.K., Doriarajan, N., Titus George, V. and Chandran, N.D.J. (2002) Pathology of reproductive organs of layer birds in Newcastle disease infection. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 72 : 973-974.
19. Masti, J., Nabni, C., Van den Berg, J. and Meulemans, G. (2005) Ultrastructural changes of the tracheal epithelium after vaccination of day old chicken with the Lasota strain of NDV. Vet. Pathol. 42: 559 - 565.
20. Agoha, N. J., Akpavie, S. O., Durojaiye, O. A. and Adene, D. F. (1992) Pathogenicity of two strains of Newcastle disease virus in the grey-breasted helmet guinea fowl. Vet. Quart. 14:51–53.
21. Lam, K. M. and Vasconcelos, A. C. (1994) Newcastle disease virus– induced apoptosis in chicken peripheral blood lymphocytes. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 44:45–56.
22. Lam, K. M. (1996) Newcastle disease virus–induced apoptosis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chickens. J. Comp. Pathol. 114:63–71.
23. Food and Agriculture Organisation (2003) Egg Production: Egg Production cycle. FAO Services Bulletin. FAO. Rome. p1-16.
24. Foilb, A.R., Lui, P. and Romeo, R.D. (2011) The transformation of hormonal stress responses throughout puberty and adolescence. J. Endocrinol. 210:391-398.
25. Abdu, P.A., Mera, U.M. and Saidu, L. (1992) A study of chicken mortality in Zaria, Nigeria. Proceeding of National Workshop on Livestock and Vet. Services, (NWLVS'92), National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, p51-55.
26. Srithar, A., Shoba, K., Saminathan, P., Chandran, N.D.G., Dorairajan, N. and Venugoplan, A.T. (1997) Pattern of mortality in commercial layer farms at Namakhal. Indian Vet. J., 74: 996-997.